法學論著
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論著名稱:
從「我們的憲法」、「我們」到「我們的釋憲者」:形塑非國民之憲法上權利主體(From “Our Constitution”, “Our People”, to “Our Justices”: Constructing A Non-Citizen “People”)
文獻引用
編著譯者: 范秀羽
出版日期: 2021.12
集叢名稱: 台灣 憲法解釋之理論與實務 第 11 輯
頁  數: 38 點閱次數: 631
下載點數: 152 點 銷售明細: 權利金查詢 變更售價
授 權 者: 范秀羽
關 鍵 詞: 憲法權利主體移民法公民身分司法審查移民管制權力他我之別
中文摘要: 我國傳統憲法理論經常將憲法上完整權利主體預設為國民,且其當然受到所有憲法上權利之保障,而僅在個別基本權之保障是否延伸及於非國民,存有不同意見。本文首先自憲法文本及基本原理,論證國民/非國民二元論與憲法權利保障間並無必然關聯,且憲法就權利主體留有一定形塑空間,由釋憲者(而非政治部門)加以解釋。本文再實際檢視相關實定法如國籍法、移民法、戶籍法後,點出傳統之二元論,在現行法的實踐上並非二元,而呈現出光譜般的多重區別,且司法審查也對此一光譜回敬以寬嚴不同之審查密度。隨後本文先分析過去司法院大法官涉及他我之別之憲法解釋,描繪釋憲者就他我之別如何判斷,再透過大法官選任制度,思考釋憲者是否也是此一區別之客體、又對其憲法職務之行使有何影響。最後本文期許在既有憲法框架下,促生更多元、在地之憲法權利主體。
英文關鍵詞: constitutional subjectimmigration lawcitizenshipjudicial reviewimmigration powerus versus them
英文摘要: The prevailing theories of qualified subject of constitutional rights usually assume that citizens, as members of the state, shall be the standard subject of constitutional rights and be guaranteed all the rights in the Constitution. These theories disagree only on of which rights the guarantee is extended to non-citizens. This Article first critically reviews the text of the Constitution and other relevant constitutional and political scientific theories to refute the assumption that the guarantee of constitutional rights must be tied to the citizen/non-citizen distinction. Specifically, this Article traces back the development of the two early models of citizenship, the republic model and the liberal model, and reasons that, in terms of constructing the deserving subject of constitutional rights, both models were after the ideal of inclusion, as opposed to exclusion. Furthermore, this Article argues that the Constitution actually leaves room for the judiciary’s (as opposed to the political departments’) flexible construction of the subject of constitutional rights. To review the current legal system of citizenship and immigration law, this Article then examines related congressional acts and regulations, such as the Nationality Act, the Immigration Act and the Act of Household Registration, and discovers that the execution of this binary citizen/non-citizen distinction turned out to be an unexpected multi-level distinction over a broad spectrum, which also leads to differentiated standards of judicial review. In this specturm of multi-level distinction, individuals are excluded, in whole or in part, from the protection of constitutional rights merely for a violation or noncompliance of immigration laws and regulations. Subsequently, this Article first analyzes the relevant Judicial Yuan Interpretations to describe the us-them distinction adopted by the Justices and then by looking into the process of Justices’ nomination and appointment, discusses whether the Justices themselves are also subject to this usthem distinction and how this might affect their performance of the constitutional duty. Finally, this Article concludes with how to construct a more diverse yet localized membership under the Constitution.
目  次: 壹、前言
貳、我們的憲法:憲法界分的他我之別
一、憲法文本的他我之別:外於國籍的權利主體
二、公民身分、人民主權與國家憲法
參、我們:他我之別、國家行為與司法審查
一、現行法制下之他我之別
二、國家行為與司法審查
肆、我們的釋憲者:判斷與被判斷
一、大法官解釋的他我之別
二、超越國籍與國族的釋憲者
伍、結論
相關法條:
相關判解:
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相關論著:
范秀羽,從「我們的憲法」、「我們」到「我們的釋憲者」:形塑非國民之憲法上權利主體,憲法解釋之理論與實務 第 11 輯,2021年12月。
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