法學論著
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論著名稱:
以歐盟規範與實踐論電信業垂直擠壓的管制(The Application of EU Regulations and Practices on Margin Squeeze in Telecommunications Sector)
文獻引用
編著譯者: 魏杏芳
出版日期: 2015.12
集叢名稱: 台灣 第 20 屆競爭政策與公平交易法學術研討會論文集
頁  數: 23 點閱次數: 182
下載點數: 92 點 銷售明細: 權利金查詢 變更售價
授 權 者: 魏杏芳
關 鍵 詞: 垂直擠壓架構指令「指導文件」市場主導者市場界定用戶迴路寬頻接取
中文摘要: 垂直整合事業供給的產品或服務是生產下游產品的必要投入,而該垂直整合事業於投入供給的上游市場享有主導地位,卻採取使下游市場競爭者無利可圖的定價策略,以達到最終將競爭對手逐出下游市場的目的,此即所謂價格擠壓。這是電信主導事業常見的濫用市場力行為。歐盟電信自由化之後,仍有既存主導事業繼續維持其市場力於不墜,電信法規的「事前」管制手段,尚難有效處理主導事業的排他定價行為,故積極於電信法領域導入競爭法原理原則,並強化與改善競爭法的「事後」執行模式。近年歐盟於電信業適用競爭法,已明確由概念或形式分析轉向系統性的經濟分析,重視垂直擠壓是否造成市場封鎖,並損害傷害消費者利益,並發布「指導文件」對外詳予闡明。
我國電信業開放競爭的政策方向與歐盟一致,但公平交易法於電信業的管制作用相較於歐盟薄弱甚多,參考歐盟電信法規與實務,公平會可在「市場主導者」、市場界定與加強競爭法執行等三個方向,採取積極的作為,有助於我國電信競爭環境的健全與發展。
英文關鍵詞: margin squeezeframework directiveguidance paperdominant operatormarket definitionlocal loopbroadband access
英文摘要: A margin squeeze occurs when a vertical integrated company which is dominant in the supply of an indispensible upstream input market pursues a pricing policy intending to prevent downstream competitors from trading profitably, thereby leading to their ultimate exclusion from the downstream market. We can often see this type of price abuse which an incumbent dominant operator implements on the telecommunications market. Even after the liberalization in EU, many incumbents continue to maintain their dominant positions on the markets and it is insufficient to address those dominant enterprises' exclusive pricing by way of ex ante regulations. The intensive introduction of competition law into the sector-specific regulations and aggressive ex post enforcement by the competition authority are EU' s response to this situation. The model for competition analysis on the margin squeeze cases has been significant changes. The EU Commission has transformed its format-based analysis to systematic economic assessment. For exclusive pricing conducts including margin squeezes, the Commission put emphases on the effects of market foreclosure and thereby the detriment to consumers' interests. Based on its practicing experiences in the past, an explanatory document named "guidance paper" was published by the Commission for public reference.
The policy and trend for the liberalization in telecommunications sector in Taiwan is quite similar with that in EU, whereas the vigorousness of competition law enforcement is relatively insufficient in Taiwan. Learning from the EU' s regulations and practices on margin squeezes, and for the purpose of effective competition on the telecommunication market in Taiwan, our competition authority, the Fair Trade Commission, should, inter alia, take initiatives on the following three prospects: modernizing the definition of a dominant operator, setting a more delicate method of market definition and upgrading the power of competition law enforcement.
目  次: 壹、前言
貳、經濟觀點(more economic-based approach)的管制策略-「指導文件」的內涵
一、背景說明
二、「指導文件」與電信業垂直擠壓
(一)主導地位(Dominance)
(二)市場封鎖(Foreclosure)
(三)排他定價行為(price-based exclusionary conduct)
(四)抗辯
(五)特定因素
小結
參、歐盟電信業垂直擠壓案例的觀察
一、Deutsche Telekom(DT)案
(一)迴路接取市場
(二)主導地位
(三)垂直擠壓檢視
二、Telefónica 案
(一)Telefónica 在寬頻價值鍊的控制地位
(二)法律分析
      1.相關市場
      2.Telefónica 的主導地位
      3.Telefónica 垂直擠壓濫用市場力量的事實
      4.Telefónica 垂直擠壓行為的效果
小結
肆、歐盟規範與實踐於我國電信業垂直擠壓管制的藉鑑意義
一、重新思考所謂「市場主導者」的內涵與定義
二、正確界定電信業相關市場為根本前提
三、公平會應積極承擔電信業垂直擠壓執法的任務
伍、結論
相關法條:
相關判解:
相關函釋:
相關論著:
魏杏芳,以歐盟規範與實踐論電信業垂直擠壓的管制,第 20 屆競爭政策與公平交易法學術研討會論文集,2015年12月。
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