法學期刊
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論著名稱:
具體違憲審查與正當程序保障-大法官釋字第五三五號解釋的續構與改造(Concrete Review of Constitutionality and Due Process Guarantee Reinforcing and Reforming the Interpretation No. 535 of the Council of Grand Justices)
文獻引用
編著譯者: 湯德宗
出版日期: 2004.04
刊登出處: 台灣/憲政時代第 29 卷 第 4 期/445-480 頁
頁  數: 28 點閱次數: 1507
下載點數: 112 點 銷售明細: 權利金查詢 變更售價
授 權 者: 湯德宗
關 鍵 詞: 警察臨檢逮捕拘禁人身自由正當程序相當事由裁判重要關連性警察勤務條例警察職權行使法大法官釋字第五三五號解釋違憲審查
中文摘要: 本文主要從兩個角度-「續構」與「改造」,評釋司法院大法官釋字第五三五號解釋。全文計分四節。第一節(壹、)說明該件解釋的內容,作為下文開展的基礎。第二節(貳、)由比較憲法觀點,闡析本件解釋確立「警察不得恣意臨檢」的原則,於健全我國人權保障體系具有重大貢獻,惟其論理(reasoning, Begründung)猶有不足,爰試予補強。第三節(參、)回歸本件原因事實,探究大法官引進德國「裁判重要關連性理論」的用意,發現其在現制(「抽象違憲審查」)下用益實為有限,爰籲請改採「具體違憲審查」制,俾能有效保障人權。文末模擬操作「具體違憲審查」制,試擬「憲法訴訟判決書」,用以對照原「解釋文」供參。
英文關鍵詞: administrative search and seizuredue processinvestigative stop and friskreasonable suspicionprobable causeInterpretation No. 535liberty and security of personarbitrary arrest and detentionCouncil of Grand Justices
英文摘要: This article critically reviews, from two perspectives, the Interpretation No. 535 rendered by the Council of Grand Justices, in which they announced for the first time that policemen cannot arbitrarily stop and frisk persons on administrative or investigative grounds. Section one summarizes the highlights of the Interpretation as the basis for further discussion. Section two first analyzes, from a comparative constitutional law viewpoint, the contribution of the Interpretation in improving the protection of human rights in Taiwan. Then the author tries to reinforce the reasoning of the Interpretation by anchoring its ground in Article 8, Section 1 of the Constitution. Section three questions the benefit of introducing the so-called “Substantial Relationship with the Decision at Issue” Theory from German Bundesverfassungsgericht. In short, the Justices with the Theory extended the scope of their review of constitutionality from the very statues or regulations upon which the decision at dispute is based, to the statutes or regulations that are substantially related to the decision at dispute. The author, however, argues that without replacing the extant system of abstract review of constitutionality with concrete review based upon “cases or controversies”, various human rights simply cannot be secured effectively. Finally, a particular “decision” of constitutional adjudication is drafted for further reference as a contrast to the Interpretation reviewed.
目  次: 前言
壹、釋字第五三五號解釋攬要
一、案情概要
(一)事實經過
(二)聲請意旨
二、解釋要旨
(一)確認審查標的及於警察勤務條例
(二)警察勤務條例兼有組織法與行為法之性質
(三)臨檢影響人民憲法權利甚鉅,其要件、程序應符合法治國原則
(四)實施臨檢應以必要者為限
(五)實施臨檢應遵守正當程序
(六)警察勤務條例應限期修正
(七)受臨檢人於法令未完備前仍得就臨檢提起行政爭訟
貳、釋字第五三五號解釋續構
一、應確認憲法上「正當程序保障」於警察「臨檢」亦有適用
(一)憲法第八條第一項之本質在保障人民之自由及權利免於遭受公權力恣意、無理之侵害
(二)警察「臨檢」乃限制人民「身體自由」之公權力行為
(三)臨檢之「正當程序」包括「實質上正當」與「程序上正當」
二、憲法第八條「人身自由」包含「免於無理搜索扣押之自由」
參、釋字第五三五號解釋省思
一、引進「裁判重要關連性」理論之目的
(一)為補救現制缺失
(二)為有效保障人權
二、改採「具體違憲審查」始能有效保障人權
(一)原因事實已足界定審查標的
(二)憲法訴訟須審查法令之事實涵攝,乃能有效保障人權
(三)憲法訴訟始能真正確立臨檢之「正當程序保障」
肆、結論
相關法條:
相關判解:
相關函釋:
相關論著:
湯德宗,具體違憲審查與正當程序保障-大法官釋字第五三五號解釋的續構與改造,憲政時代,第 29 卷 第 4 期,445-480 頁,2004年04月。
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