法學期刊
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論著名稱:
美、日民營矯正機構之最新發展狀況與綜合評價(An Appraisal of the Latest Developments of Private Correctional Facilities in the United States and Japan)
文獻引用
編著譯者: 謝如媛
出版日期: 2007.11
刊登出處: 台灣/國立中正大學法學集刊第 23 期/65-114 頁
頁  數: 50 點閱次數: 1438
下載點數: 200 點 銷售明細: 權利金查詢 變更售價
授 權 者: 謝如媛
關 鍵 詞: 民營監獄監獄民營化矯正機構處遇PFI監獄受刑人收容人監獄超收
中文摘要: 美國是目前世界上民營矯正機構最為發達的國家,從聯邦到各州郡都有不少受刑人是拘禁在民營矯正機構中。另一方面,日本也在今年開始引入民營矯正機構,但並非如美國有些機構般全面將監所的營運交給民間,而是採取官方主導、民間輔助的混合型民營方式,兩者有相當大的不同,其背後的意義亦有所差異。
本文擬從美國的發展經驗談起,並介紹日本最近所引進的 PFI 模式民營監獄,文中除說明美、日兩國引進民營矯正機構的歷史背景、型態、現狀等基本概況外,亦分析該國對於民營矯正機構之意見與批判,以及在行刑處遇理念上所顯示的差異,以做為我國刑事政策未來發展方向的參考。
雖然,民營監獄的議題在我國尚未受到充分關注,但長期以來,監獄超收及其對處遇環境所造成的負面影響,一直是實務所面臨的難題,而對於累再犯及重大犯罪的嚴罰化趨勢,又可能使上述問題更加惡化。從各國發展民營監獄的歷史來看,我們不難想像民營監獄很可能會作為解決超收的一個選項而受到討論。期望藉由本文,能預先對何謂民營矯正機構加以瞭解,並提供個人的評價意見,以期做為各界討論的基礎。
英文關鍵詞: private prisonsprison privatizationcorrectional facilitiestreatmentPrivate Finance Initiativeprisonerinmatesprison overcrowding
英文摘要: The United States currently has the largest number of private correctional facilities in the world. Numerous prisoners, whether charged by the Federal or State governments, are placed in private correctional facilities. On the other hand, Japan began to introduce private correctional facilities this year, yet unlike the United States, Japan has adopted a mixed model in which the facilities are controlled by the government and at the same time supported by community organisations. There are immense differences and therefore underlying implications between the two types of facilities.
This paper proposes to begin with a discussion of the experiences in the United States, followed by an introduction about the Private Finance Initiative (PFI) model of private prisons adopted in Japan. This paper describes the historical background, pattern and the current status of private correctional facilities in the two countries, followed by an analysis of the country’s opinion and criticisms on the topic and the differences between the principles of prisoner treatment in the two countries. These are intended as references guiding the direction of future criminal justice polices in Taiwan.
Although the topic of private prisons has not yet attracted wide attention in Taiwan, the fact that prisons are overcrowded and the negative impact of this problem on the treatment of prisoners, has been a long-standing issue in practice. This problem could be worsened by the trend to punish repeated offenders and offenders of serious crimes severely. A review of the history of the development of private prisons shows that they are likely to be a solution to the problem of prison overcrowding, and this will generate debate. It is the aim of this paper to introduce the concept of private correctional facilities, and provide an evaluation as a basis for future discussions by those who are interested.
目  次: 壹、前言及用語說明
貳、美國民營矯正機構之發展狀況
一、美國民營矯正機構之歷史
二、美國民營矯正機構之現狀
三、美國民營矯正機構之諸型態
四、美國對民營矯正機構之討論觀點與評價
(一)是否能削減成本
(二)再犯率
(三)處遇品質將因此提升或降低
(四)延伸出的法律爭議
(五)各方力量的鬥爭次
參、日本 PFI 監獄之發展狀況
一、日本導入 PFI 監獄之基本背景
二、PFI 監獄之現狀-以美祢社會復歸促進中心為例
三、日本學界對民營矯正機構之討論
(一)在公營或民營之間
(二)以受刑人處遇品質為關注核心
肆、綜合評價
一、在過剩監禁的背後
二、民營化方式的考察-全面或部分,營利或非營利
三、基本觀點-矯正處遇的改善
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相關論著:
謝如媛,美、日民營矯正機構之最新發展狀況與綜合評價,國立中正大學法學集刊,第 23 期,65-114 頁,2007年11月。
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