法學期刊.
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論著名稱: 由美國立法暨實務經驗探討專利品質對提昇產業科技之重要性(The Study on the Importance of Patent Quality to Improve Industrial Technology from the U.S. Legislation and Practical Experiences)
編著譯者: 陳文吟
出版日期: 2010.06
刊登出處: 台灣/臺北大學法學論叢第 74 期 /147-196 頁
頁  數: 50 點閱次數: 1823
下載點數: 200 點 銷售明細: 權利金查詢 變更售價
授 權 者: 國立臺北大學法律學院 授權者指定不分配權利金給作者)
關 鍵 詞: 專利品質優質專利劣質專利專利流氓核准後公眾審查制實施強制授權特許實施
中文摘要: 專利制度的目的本在提昇產業科技,然而,專利制度的施行卻亦可能損及產業科技的發展。探究其緣由,主要係因專利品質(patent quality)低落之故。
西元 1990 年代以降,劣質專利逐一浮現,此源於新的技術領域(如電腦軟體、商業方法電腦軟體)急遽發展,美國專利商標局(Patent andTrademark Office,簡稱 ‘ PTO ’)無法即時應對。致使其核准過多的劣質專利,復以缺乏完善的撤銷制度,使劣質專利權人得以據其專利權肆意地牟取優厚的權利金。此等專利權人即「專利流氓」(patent trolls)之謂。近二十年來,專利流氓的橫行,與專利品質便有密切關聯。美國聯邦國會自西元 2004 年迄 2010 年,提出數項專利改革法案(惟,均未能通過立法),論者亦提出多種方案,期有助於解決劣質專利所衍生之疑慮。主要因應措施:(1)採先申請主義,(2)18 個月早期公開制,(3)提升審查品質,(4)採行核准後之公眾審查制,(5)從嚴認定故意侵權(willful infringement),以及(6)核發禁令的限制。
我國亦致力於專利審查品質的提升,包括專利法的研修、專利審查基準的的修正。至於專利侵權訴訟,經濟部智慧財產局於 2004 年 10 月完成「專利侵害鑑定要點」函送司法院,由司法院函送各法官辦案鑑定時參考。我國並於 2008 年 7 月 1 日成立智慧財產法院,同日施行智慧財產案件審理法及智慧財產案件審理法施行細則。提升專利審查品質及專利侵權訴訟的效率,固然可摒除劣質專利和部分專利流氓,然終未能完全摒除專利流氓。是以,重新檢視其實施要件自有其必要性。
本文以為回復實施要件之規定,促使專利權人實施其專利權,既有助於其他業者瞭解專利技術之操作,亦可避免專利流氓,有助於產業科技的發展。
英文關鍵詞: Patent qualitygood quality patentbad / low quality patentpatent trollspost-grant oppositionworking requirementcompulsory licensing
英文摘要: Patent quality means patent claims meet the patent requirements. Good quality patents do improve industrial technology, on the contrary, bad quality patents may deter technical innovation and industrial competition. For instance, the holders of bad patents may force other users to pay royalty by threatening them with litigation. That is so-called patent trolls.
In 1990s, new technologies were created, such as software, business method software, PTO was unable to keep pace with the new development due to lack of prior art search data, examining guidelines and experience of dealing with new technical field. Hence, bad quality patents were issued one after another. Without efficient post-grant reexamination system, bad quality patents could easily survive at the rest of patent term.
For the past two decades, patent trolls greedily collect royalty, ironically, they produce nothing. They apply for patents or buying patents is just for the purpose of collecting royalty or suing others for damages. Most of them are with bad quality patents or broad patents.
U.S. Congress noticed the above problems and introduced couple of bills trying to fix it by improving patent quality. None of the bills was passed.
Our government is also involved in promoting patent quality and the efficiency of infringement lawsuits. All those efforts do improve patent quality as well as the efficiency of handling lawsuits, but, the patent trolls may still exist. To impose patent holders the duty to practice patent invention is, therefore, extremely important. The author strongly suggests to re-establish working requirement by listing it as one of the causes of compulsory licensing.
目  次: 壹、前言
貳、專利制度之目的
一、鼓勵發明理論
二、鼓勵揭露理論
三、鼓勵創新理論
四、鼓勵迴避設計
五、預期理論
參、專利品質
一、定義
二、劣質專利的形成
(一)審查品質低落
(二)專利訴訟的繁複
三、專利流氓
四、對產業科技的影響
肆、摒除劣質專利暨專利流氓之因應措施
一、採行先申請主義
二、修正 18 個月早期公開制
三、提升審查品質
四、核准後公眾審查制
五、從嚴認定故意侵權
六、核發禁令的限制
七、本文見解
伍、結語
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