法學期刊
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論著名稱:
美國專利法上「具有通常技術者」之探討(A Study of the U.S. Patent Law’s PHOSITA)
文獻引用
編著譯者: 謝祖松
出版日期: 2010.12
刊登出處: 台灣/臺北大學法學論叢第 76 期/43-94 頁
頁  數: 50 點閱次數: 3914
下載點數: 200 點 銷售明細: 權利金查詢 變更售價
授 權 者: 國立臺北大學法律學院 授權者指定不分配權利金給作者)
關 鍵 詞: 具有通常知識者進步性致能要求合理人後見之明KSR
中文摘要: 「具有通常技術者」為美國專利法上一擬制之人,原文「 Person Having Ordinary Skill In The Art 」,簡稱「 PHOSITA 」,是美國專利法第 103 條中判斷非顯而易知性之標準,十分重要。我國專利法第 22 條進步性規定中,亦仿傚有一擬制之「具有通常知識者」,故值得研究。因擬制之人的抽象性致其有不確定性,故本文將予以定性。首先,尋找其擬制緣起,以瞭解其在何種背景之下被引入美國專利法中。繼之,探究美國侵權行為法上之「合理人」與其被引入之間是否存有關聯性。並研究「合理人」之建構及內涵,以與其做一對照。「具有通常技術者」其與美國專利法上第 112 條致能要求之「熟悉該項技術者」,兩者在文義上均以「技術」為其表徵,故本文以「技術水準」為其研究重心,分別討論之。另針對該擬制之人的內涵,將探討其是否為特定人,例如,其是否為法官、審查官、發明人、專家、陪審團員或外國人等。次而,瞭解「具有通常技術者」是否等同於「熟悉該項技術者」。再者,目前多國仿傚「具有通常技術者」,然若該擬制之人的適用會因「後見之明」而產生偏誤,將是嚴重問題。本文擬說明偏誤之發生原因,藉由統計方式量化偏誤之程度,引 KSR 案以瞭解該案對後見之明之影響,並提出解決偏誤之二元測試法。最後,本文觀察國際間仿傚該擬制之人之概況,並輔以我國現行規範做比較分析。

英文關鍵詞: PHOSITAnonobviousnessenablementreasonable personhindsightKSR
英文摘要: A “person having ordinary skill in the art”, with the acronym PHOSITA, is the legal fiction in section 103 of the United States’ Patent Law for the expression of nonobviousness, wherein a similar legal fiction can also be found in section 22 of our Patent Act for the expression of inventive step. These legal fictions are important because they are the supporting elements to the patentability.
Due to appearance of uncertainty shown by the legal fiction, this paper clarifies the contents of PHOSITA by tracing back to its history, comparing with the analogized “reasonable person” in torts, in order to appreciate the judicial reasoning provided in cases and therefore acquire a clearer picture of this legal fiction.
Further, this paper proposes to analyze the level of skill of the PHOSITA, along with that of another legal fiction “person skilled in the art”, found in section 112 of the U.S. Patent Law, to better understand the degree of knowledge of related technology possessed by them.
In particular, this paper discusses whether this legal fiction can be a certain person, such as a(an) examiner, expert, judge, juror, or foreigner, to further provide this legal fiction an even clearer identification. On the other hand, this paper also evaluates whether the PHOSITA equates the “person skilled in the art” in section 112, distinguishing the applications rendered by them in fields of nonobviousness and enablement.
Given that the PHOSITA was created by the U.S. Patent Law, many countries had established the similar legal fictions accordingly. The hindsight bias created by PHOSITA would be a severe problem based on the situation that there are many similar legal fictions in the world currently. Thus, an experimental research is introduced to indicate the significance of the biases, and a considerably helpful bifurcating method to ameliorate these biases is also provided.
Last, this paper briefly surveys these similar legal fictions adopted and named by these countries and international organizations, such as Germany, Japan, mainland China, and WTO, supplementing with a comparative study of the PHOSITA and the legal fictions in our Patent Act.

目  次: 壹、緒言
貳、「具有通常技術者」之定性
一、「具有通常技術者」之擬制緣起
(一)美國專利法上「具有通常技術者」之引入
(二)美國侵權行為法上「合理人」之對照
二、擬制之人的技術水準
(一)「具有通常技術者」在非顯而易知性上之技術水準
(二)「熟習該項技術者」在致能要求上之技術水準
三、「具有通常技術者」之內涵檢視
(一)「具有通常技術者」是否為特定人
(二)「具有通常技術者」是否等同於「熟習該項技術者」
參、「具有通常技術者」的後見之明
一、後見之明的實證研究
(一)後見之明偏誤的產生
(二)後見之明偏誤的統計
二、處理後見之明的新判決及新方法
(一)KSR v. Teleflex 案
(二)二元測試法
肆、以比較法討論「具有通常技術者」
一、國際間仿傚「具有通常技術者」之概況
二、我國專利法上之「具有通常知識者」
(一)進步性中之「具有通常知識者」
(二)致能要求及寄存規定中之「具有通常知識者」
伍、結論

相關法條:
相關判解:
相關函釋:
相關論著:
謝祖松,美國專利法上「具有通常技術者」之探討,臺北大學法學論叢,第 76 期,43-94 頁,2010年12月。
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