法學期刊
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論著名稱:
法庭之法律性質-以公平法院之理念為中心(The Nature of Court-Focus on Impartial Tribunal)
文獻引用
編著譯者: 劉秉鈞
出版日期: 2009.12.15
刊登出處: 台灣/軍法專刊第 55 卷 第 6 期/4-34 頁
頁  數: 31 點閱次數: 1862
下載點數: 124 點 銷售明細: 權利金查詢 變更售價
授 權 者: 軍法專刊社 授權者指定不分配權利金給作者)
關 鍵 詞: 公平法院發見真實保障人權
中文摘要: 完善的司法制度,必須隨著人民的需求與社會的變動邁進,但改革是永無止境的。我國司法制度雖幾經重大變革,但未盡理想、周延之處尚多,必須抱持「追求卓越,擁抱改變」,「世無常法」、「法與時轉則治」的信念前進。我國刑事訴訟法修正的基調,從訴訟主體的角度而言,應著重於「證據的攻防在當事人」,「法律的適用在法官」,「程序的選擇權兼容訴訟參與人」。從訴訟客體的角度而言,應著重於「追求訴訟的安定性,保障被告訴訟防禦權」。從審級制度之思考而言,應朝向「第一審事實審,第二審事後審,第三審法律審」,方為「妥速審判」正本清源之道。就刑事訴訟法的任務,從結構面、制度面省思,兼顧大陸法系與英美法系之特色,刑事訴訟追求「真實發見」與「保障人權」之目標,兩者關係有如鐘擺的兩端,不可偏廢。本文認為「法庭的法律性質」,其核心內容不外「公平法院」,依符合公平正義的程序,所實現的實體的公平正義,才是完整的法的公平正義,這是憲法賦予「法庭」的憲法使命。
英文關鍵詞: impartial tribunaltruth discoveryassurance of human rights
英文摘要: A perfect judicial system requires following up the need of people and the movement of society; nevertheless, it is an endless road of reformation. The judicial system of our country has experienced several significant innovations; however, it is still imperfect in many aspects. Thus, we shall keep on reforming with those concepts of "pursue the perfection, embrace the change"; "there is no eternal rule"; and "management comes after legal system keeping pace with the times."
In respect of "Subject of Procedure," the keynote of the amendment of our Law of Criminal Procedure shall place emphasis on "argument of evidence resorts to litigants"; "legal application relies on judges"; and "procedural options shall combine the participation of intervenors." Furthermore, with respect to "Object of Procedure," we shall focus on " pursuing the stability of litigation and guarding the defensive right of defendants." Moreover, in regard to "Stages of Trial," we shall head to "the first stage is trial of fact, the second stage is trial of post facto, and the third stage is trial of law," and realize that this is the radical approach for "accurate and rapid judgments."
Besides, regarding to the structural and systematic reflections about the mission of Law of Criminal Procedure and considering the characteristics from both civil law and common law systems, the two main goals of Law of Criminal Procedure- "Truth Discovery" and "Human Right Protection"-are like two sides of a balance and cannot stress one to the neglect of the other. In summary, this article deems "Fair Court" is the core component of "the Legal Nature of Court." The substantively fair justice demonstrated by due and impartial process is the integrated fair justice of law; moreover, this is the constitutional mission of "Court," and such mission is entrusted by Constitution.
目  次: 一、前言
二、三權分立憲政體制下司法之使命
(一)權力分立之界限
1. 司法權係國家統治權之分化作用而產生
2. 立法、行政、司法三權分立,地位平等
(二)軍事審判與司法審判
(三)保障人民的基本權利
1. 受公平法院審判之權利
2. 以令狀確保人民基本權利
3. 司法嚴守正當法律程序
三、公平法院的基本要求
(一)審判庭組成的適當性
1. 法院的組織-司法民主化
2. 專業法庭
(二)審判結構、機制的公平性
(三)審判程序的妥速性
1. 公開審理
2. 避免裁判預斷
3. 當事人進行
4. 辯論主義
5. 訴訟客體確定
(四)審判的獨立性
四、我國現制與公平法院理念之省思
(一自訴與公訴之扞格應修法解決
(二)起訴狀一本制度尚無採行之必要
(三)訴因制度應作為妥速審判之一環
(四)職權進行與當事人進行併行
(五)修正指定辯護適用範圍
(六)改造上訴審之任務
(七)檢討審判之控管
五、結論
相關法條:
相關判解:
相關函釋:
相關論著:
劉秉鈞,法庭之法律性質-以公平法院之理念為中心,軍法專刊,第 55 卷 第 6 期,4-34 頁,2009年12月15日。
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