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論著名稱:
出賣人權利瑕疵擔保責任之研究:兼論最高法院 71 年度台上字第 4114 號民事判決(A Study on the Warranty against Defects of Right)
文獻引用
編著譯者: 陳添輝
出版日期: 2012.11
刊登出處: 台灣/國立臺灣大學法學論叢第 41 卷 特刊/1245-1320 頁
頁  數: 76 點閱次數: 6264
下載點數: 304 點 銷售明細: 權利金查詢 變更售價
授 權 者: 國立臺灣大學法律學院
關 鍵 詞: 權利瑕疵擔保責任物之瑕疵擔保責任追奪占有制度債務不履行制度有償契約之對價均衡理論擔保責任制度
中文摘要: 我國民法學者通說主張,權利瑕疵與物之瑕疵,共同構成瑕疵擔保責任制度,其理論根據,係法律為維持有償契約之對價均衡,藉以特別保護交易安全,與債務不履行制度不同。然而,權利瑕疵於買賣契約成立時存在者,為權利瑕疵擔保責任之領域;若權利瑕疵於買賣契約成立時並未存在,而於嗣後始發生者,則為債務不履行之一種,不屬於瑕疵擔保之問題云云。通說之見解,有下列疑慮,例如;權利瑕疵於買賣契約成立時並未存在,而於買賣契約成立後始發生者,為何無需維持有償契約之對價均衡?此外,依民法第 353 條之規定,出賣人就權利瑕疵應負損害賠償責任,其賠償範圍為買受人所受損害及所失利益,甚至尚有給付違約金之可能,這些都無法以對價均衡理論予以說明。因此,就出賣人權利瑕疵擔保責任之問題,似仍有再研究之必要。因我國民法典及學說理論,主要繼受自歐陸國家。為瞭解我國現行民法之規定,本文首先觀察歐陸主要國家民法之規定及學說理論,然後以之作為分析檢討我國現行民法規定之基礎。此外,本文亦從美國契約法、1980 年 4 月 11 日聯合國之國際商品買賣公約、2002 年 1 月 1 日施行之德國新民法,探討我國未來政策面之發展趨勢。
英文關鍵詞: warranty against defects of rightwarranty against defects of thingthe system of evictionthe system of non-performancethe theory of ensuring the balance for a contract with considerationwarranty system
英文摘要: Most civil law scholars in Taiwan argue that both the “warranty against defects of right” and the “warranty against defects of thing” constitute the so-called “warranty system”. Such a warranty system is applied in particular to ensure the transaction security of a contract with consideration, and that is different from the system of “non-performance”. Nonetheless, the author has a different view. Taiwan Civil Code Article 349 provides that “The seller of a transaction shall secure the buyer that a third party may not claim any right on the subject matter of the transaction.” The purpose of this article, however, is to make sure that the seller is obliged to exclude any right of a third party on the subject matter of the transaction; when the seller fails to exclude the third-party-right, it shall be deemed as a case of “non-performance”. As such, the “warranty against defects of right” is part of the “non-performance” system, and it is different from the “warranty against the defects thing”. Therefore, the author argues that in theory, the seller bear burdens of “warranty against defects of right” shall be based on the theory of “non-performance” system, rather than on the theory of ensuring the balance for a contract with consideration, as claimed by most civil law scholars in Taiwan. This research project also provides analytical views from common law, the United Nations Convention on the sale of goods of 11th of April 1980, and the newly applied German debt law of 1st of January 2002, in order to explore future trends for the Taiwan Civil Code on the system of “warranty against defects of rights”.
目  次: 壹、最高法院 71 年度台上字第 4114 號民事判決
一、案例事實
二、原審的判決理由
三、最高法院的判決理由
貳、問題之提出及研究方法之說明
一、問題之提出
二、研究方法之說明
參、我國現行法之分析檢討
一、歐陸主要國家民法之觀察
二、我國民法權利瑕疵擔保責任制度之分析檢討
肆、我國未來之立法政策
一、美國契約法
二、1980 年 4 月 11 日聯合國之國際商品買賣公約
三、2002 年 1 月 1 日德國施行之新民法
四、我國未來之立法政策
伍、結論
相關法條:
相關判解:
相關函釋:
相關論著:
陳添輝,出賣人權利瑕疵擔保責任之研究:兼論最高法院 71 年度台上字第 4114 號民事判決,國立臺灣大學法學論叢,第 41 卷 特刊,1245-1320 頁,2012年11月。
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