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論著名稱:
現代社會中的事故與過失犯
文獻引用
編著譯者: 山中敬一周慶東
出版日期: 2012.12
刊登出處: 台灣/東海大學法學研究第 38 期/1-29 頁
頁  數: 16 點閱次數: 1903
下載點數: 64 點 銷售明細: 權利金查詢 變更售價
授 權 者: 周慶東
關 鍵 詞: 過失食品事故火災藥害事件公害
中文摘要: 過失犯在風險社會中的結構下成為社會中待有危險源的構造型過失。過是係不注意,刑罰的效果充其量只不過代表著一般性地對不注意的態度加以警告訓誡。因此在過失犯中,處罰對於防止事故發生的有效性來講,顯得相當的低。想要避免發生事故,不若預先行使社會政策、交通政策或法規制等等的其他手段,會來得更有效果。然而過失犯旳處罰在現狀上卻是逐漸朝重刑化發展。現代過失犯的課題是,要如何去調整對過失犯罪發生的處罰有效性,以及社會與被害人遺族對刑罰的要求,如何適當而有效地去實現對過失犯的處罰。過失類型由個人模式逐漸發展成競合、分工與組織化的複數人模式。對應著這樣的類型轉變,刑法的教室學也隨之變化。主要的內容有舊過失犯論、新過失犯論、危懼感說(新々過失犯論)、管理監督過失論及新進發展的刑事製造物過失論。在日本的過失犯的展開過程是以 1950 年代多次發生重大傷亡的鐵路事故開始,約略可區分幾種階段,1960 年代後的交通事故盛行的時代、1980 年代後則是基於引發公害、都市災害、大規模火災等組織內部缺陷的過失犯時代,其後經過了開始增加圍繞著藥害、食品事故或醫療事故等有關過失的判例增加的時代。2000 年以後,產生了新的過失,即流通中有缺陷的製造物成為事故原因的有關刑事製造物過失的判例時代。對應著這些學說的轉變,判例也出現了不同的面貌。本文分別就各領域的過失重要判決加以闡述並進行了評析。對於過失犯的開展,不單只是由舊過失犯論或新過失犯論等理論方面去做考察,對判例中所顯現出的事例的體系說明,也應該展開去考慮到已成問題的過失犯特質的實務上的過失理論。由考量過失犯處罰的意義與機能的觀點來看而去檢討,由如何對應處理新近過失犯處罰重刑化傾向角度來看的理論構造。
英文關鍵詞: Errorfood accidentfirechemical damage eventenvironmental damage
英文摘要: The error violates in the risk society under the structure becomes in the society the unique dangerous source structure error. Is the department does not pay attention, the penalty effect represents at best generally to the manner which does not pay attention was warning admonishes. Therefore violates in the error, punishes regarding prevented the accident occurs the validity says, appears suitable low. The wish avoids having the accident, not if exercises the social policy, the transportation policy or the law rules and regulations in advance and so on other methods, can come to have the effect. However the error violates the punishment actually faces the severe sentence development gradually in the present situation. The modern error violates the topicis, how has to adjust the punishment validity which occurs to the error crime, as well as social and does the victim family of the deceased to the penalty request, how suitably and effectively realize the punishment which violates to the error. The error type develops Cheng Jinghe, the division of labor and the organization plural number person pattern gradually by individual pattern. Is corresponding such type transformation, the criminal law classroom study also along with it change. The main content has the old error to violate discusses, the new error violates discusses, is apprehensive the feeling to say (new error violates discusses) the criminal artifact error theory which, the management surveillance error concerned recently develops. Violated in Japan’s error launches the process has the heavy casualty railway accident by 1950 ages to start many times, rough might differentiate several kind of stages, after 1960 age traffic accidents were in vogue the time, 1980 ages were based on organization inherent drawback and so on initiation environmental damage, metropolis disaster, large-scale fire errors violate the time, after that passed through started to increase are revolving the time which the chemical damage, food accident or the incident of malpractice and so on the related error legal precedent increased. After 2000, has had the new error, namely in the circulation has the flaw artifact to become accident cause factor the related criminal artifact error legal precedent time. Corresponded these theory transformation, the legal precedent was also appearing the different appearance. This article separately on various domains error important decision elaborated and has carried on the evaluation. Development violates which regarding the error, not merely only is violates by the old error discusses or the new error violates discusses and so on the theory aspects to make the inspection, appears the instance system to the legal precedent in to explain, also should launch considered has been a problem the error violates the special characteristic in the practice error theory. Violated the punishment but by the consideration error the significance and the function viewpoint looks examines, how by corresponded processing recently the error to violate the theory structure which the punishment severe sentence tendency angle looked.
目  次: 壹、問題所在
一、過失犯之展開
二、過失犯處罰的課題
貳、現代型的過失類型與過失犯論之展開
一、現代型事故與過失犯的類型
二、過失理論的展開
參、判例中的事故與過失
一、過失事故的歷史開展
二、食品事故
三、大規模的火災事故
四、公害事故判例
五、藥害事件
六、過失製造物事故
肆、結論
相關法條:
相關判解:
相關函釋:
相關論著:
山中敬一、周慶東,現代社會中的事故與過失犯,東海大學法學研究,第 38 期,1-29 頁,2012年12月。
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