法學期刊
論著名稱: 晚清民國禁革奴婢買賣的理念與實踐(The Context of Prohibition against Human Trafficking in Late Qing and the Republic of China)
編著譯者: 黃源盛
出版日期: 2013.09
刊登出處: 台灣/政大法學評論第 134 期 /47-113 頁
頁  數: 38 點閱次數: 945
下載點數: 152 點 銷售明細: 權利金查詢 變更售價
授 權 者: 黃源盛
關 鍵 詞: 奴婢半人半物人口買賣人權晚清民國
中文摘要: 傳統中國,歷代統治者為了鞏固專制政體,總是把社會成員按其不同的階級、身分、地位、職業,分為不同等級,賦予不同的法律地位,明顯是一種身分等差的社會秩序。漢以後的法律,尤其從《唐律》到《大清律例》,奴婢均被列為「賤民」。而所謂的「賤民」,名稱並不一致,唐代主要包括部曲、客女、樂人、雜戶、官戶、奴婢等;清代則以士、農、工、商四民為良,奴婢及娼優、隸卒為賤。
歷朝各代對於略賣及誘賣良人為奴婢均有禁條,但對於「奴婢買賣」卻是法之所許。這種規範的背後制度為何?思想理據何在?降及清末,為什麼一反過去,有了新局面出現?弔詭的是,到了二十一世紀的今天,打開《中華民國刑法》第二九六條及第二九六條之一,赫然還有「使人為奴隸」及「買賣質押人口」的兩種犯罪類型,何以致之?這攸關百年來晚清民國的「自由、平等、尊嚴」的人權發展歷程,很值得細細追索。
法制歷史的迷人處,在變與不變之間,何以奴婢買賣歷久不替?到了晚清,又何以突然生變?探討歷史事件不僅在於釐清當時的歷史事實是什麼?還要追問為什麼歷史的現象會是如此?甚至要再進一步聯結歷史的過去、現在與未來,探尋其中意義之所在。
英文關鍵詞: Nupi(奴婢)the Mixture of Goods and PeopleHuman TraffickingHuman RightsLate Qing Dynasty and Republic of China
英文摘要: In traditional China, the emperors always divided their people into different social classes of different statuses of law according to their social status, professions and so on. Apparently, it was a hierarchy of social order. After the Han Dynasty, especially from the Tang Code to the Great Qing Legal Code, slaves were ranked as untouchables. The names of slaves were diverse. In the Tang Dynasty, for example, they included Puchu(部曲), Kenu(客女), Yuehjen(樂人), Tsahu(雜戶), Kuanhu(官戶)and Nupi(奴婢). In the Qing Dynasty, the intellectuals, farmers, workmen and businessmen were included in upper social statuses, and Nupi, Changyu(娼優)and Litsu(隸卒)were in a lower class.
In different dynasties, there had always been a prohibition against human trafficking, but not including slaves. What was the system behind the legal norm? In the 21st century, why are there still two crimes of “compelling people as slaves” and “trading people” in the criminal law of R.O.C.? The issue is concerned with the development of human rights in the late Qing Dynasty and the R.O.C., so it deserves to be researched very carefully.
An intriguing aspect of legal history is between the change and the unchanged. Why was the history of the slave trade so long? Why was the phenomenon changed in the late Qing Dynasty? To research the historical fact is not only to know “what” but also to know “why”, even connecting the past with the present and the future to search its meaning.
目  次: 壹、序說
貳、傳統中國「奴婢」的法律性質及其法文化上的意義
一、身分等差秩序下的「半人半物」滄桑
二、奴婢買賣歷久不替之因與社會影響
參、晚清民初奴婢制度的退隱與人口買賣的禁革
一、黎王氏案牽動禁革買賣人口與刪除奴婢律例
二、民初大理院時期禁革買賣人口的虛與實
肆、舊刑法及現行刑法中有關人格平等的規範與現實
一、民國十七年舊刑法以來的「使人為奴隸罪」
二、民國八十八年新增的「買賣質押人口罪」
伍、從法律繼受觀點看百年來平權理念的衍化與實踐
一、傳統儒家「人道思想」與近代西方「天賦人權」的交會
二、人權理念的演進與禁革買賣奴婢的腳步
陸、結語
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