法學期刊
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論著名稱:
建構有效打擊利得犯罪法制-美國「民事沒收充公」制度之借鏡(Establishing an Effective Legal Framework to Combat Crimes Related to Obtaining Monetary Interest-Using the Experience of Civil Forfeiture in U.S System)
文獻引用
編著譯者: 林輝煌
出版日期: 2012.04
刊登出處: 台灣/法學叢刊第 57 卷 第 2 期/1-28 頁
頁  數: 28 點閱次數: 1305
下載點數: 112 點 銷售明細: 權利金查詢 變更售價
授 權 者: 林輝煌
關 鍵 詞: 民事沒收對物訴訟對人訴訟犯罪工具利得犯罪
中文摘要: 實證研究顯示,「利得」已成為當今工商社會之犯罪最大的誘因與淵藪。沒收犯罪工具以癱瘓犯罪,沒收犯罪利得俾斷絕利得臍帶,始為打擊、防制利得犯罪最佳策略。傳統的刑事沒收制度固可發揮部分防止犯罪工具流竄,切斷犯罪利得動機之部分功能,但以刑事被告被定罪為前提,並限制以屬於被告所有之犯罪物為沒收客體的刑事沒收制度,當遇有被告死亡、逃匿,或其他法定事由無法追訴、審判,或犯罪組織首腦藏身幕後,操控犯罪,東窗事發則以嘍囉墊背頂罪,或犯罪者將犯罪所得轉移第三人等情事,執法機關即束手無策,無法發揮預期的嚇阻功效。美國民事充公制度,以民事訴訟之程序,達到沒收一切便利犯罪物充公之目的,藉以遏制利得犯罪,使司法程序對抗利得犯罪,發揮充分完整功能,成為執法機關據為打擊利得犯罪之重要法器。我國現制僅有刑事沒收及行政沒入等相關法律規定,獨欠民事沒收充公制度,對於全面有效打擊、抑制利得犯罪,留下重大法制缺口。為彌補缺漏,允宜以美國民事沒收充公之法制為張本,恪遵現代憲法保障正當法律程序之要求,細緻規劃,研擬一套使沒收客體與犯罪類型均衡,合乎比例原則,並兼顧充分保障被告公平審判權利,回應本土實需的民事沒收充公之法制,使行政沒入、刑事沒收及民事充公,三制鼎立,建構完備的犯罪財產沒收法制,裨益執法機關靈活交互運用,以達遏制日益猖獗的利得犯罪之目的。
英文關鍵詞: civil forfeitureaction in remaction in personamcrime related to obtaining monetary interestsinstrumentality of crime
英文摘要: The empirical researches and studies have indicated that profit is the main incentive to commit economic crimes. It has become a concensus in the international community of law enforcement to confiscate the instrumentalities of unlawful activities and forfeit the assets generated by crime.Many countries consider this approach a best strategy to paralyze crimiminals and interrup the economic chain, in order to combat and prevent such crimes. Traditional conviction-based forfeiture has been proved a failre when the offenders escape, die or the crime committed has run out statutes of limitation. In the past decade, civil forfeiture of criminal assets became institutionalized as an essential weapon on the arsenal that the federal law enforcement agencies in the U.S. counld bring to beat on the perpetrators of crime. Our current system includes only crimiminal and administrative forfeiture, while civil forfeiture is not yet in place. The absence of civil forfeiture leaves a huge gap in fighting and cubing economic crimes. To bridge this gap in our legal system, this article proposes that a modified U.S. model of civil forfeiture be adopted, with a certain adjustments that can strike a balance between the object of forfeiture and the according crime, that follows the principle of propotionality, that safeguards defendants’ right to a fair trial, and that responds to the local needs. In so doing, our system will stand firm with three pillars: administrative, criminal and civil forfeiture. The legal framework that facilitates the forfeiture of criminal assets will then become all-inclusive and the enforcement agencies will be able to take advantage of such a system in a flexible approach when fighting the increasing number of economic crimes.
目  次: 壹、前言
貳、美國沒收充公法制之緣起
參、演進的 20 世紀美國沒收法制
肆、美國財產沒收法制實務
伍、結論
相關法條:
相關判解:
相關函釋:
相關論著:
林輝煌,建構有效打擊利得犯罪法制-美國「民事沒收充公」制度之借鏡,法學叢刊,第 57 卷 第 2 期,1-28 頁,2012年04月。
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