法學期刊
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論著名稱:
論食品安全管理法制中之預防原則:以歐盟與臺灣為中心(The Precautionary Principle in Food Safety Law : Focusing on the European Union and Taiwan)
文獻引用
編著譯者: 林昱梅
出版日期: 2015.11
刊登出處: 台灣/國立臺灣大學法學論叢第 44 卷 特刊/1037-1162 頁
頁  數: 126 點閱次數: 3067
下載點數: 504 點 銷售明細: 權利金查詢 變更售價
授 權 者: 國立臺灣大學法律學院
關 鍵 詞: 風險預防原則食品安全風險分析風險評估風險管理風險溝通比例原則科學不確定性
中文摘要: 食品之生產、加工、包裝、運送、保存、販賣等各階段,均可能產生風險。面臨食品風險系統化、複雜化與全球化,許多國家採取預防原則及風險分析模式,以防止食源性疾病。
基於國家對健康權之保護義務與風險預防任務,立法與行政機關有義務在科學證據尚不確定之情形下,對食品風險採取預防措施。目前食品安全管理法制之國際趨勢,係採取以預防原則為主之基本原則。歐盟歷經戴奧辛與狂牛症等事件後,公布第 178/2002 號歐盟一般食品法,揭示預防原則、風險分析與透明原則,作為食品安全法之基本原則。我國食品安全衛生管理法第 4 條也明定主管機關採行之食品安全管理措施,應以風險評估為基礎,符合滿足國民享有之健康、安全食品以及知的權利、科學證據原則、事先預防原則、資訊透明原則,建構風險評估以及諮議體系。
本文擬參考歐盟制度與經驗,分析以預防原則為主之食品安全法基本原則。首先介紹新興食品風險之特性,分析國家與業者之食品安全管理責任與公私協力,論及我國食管法之三級管理。其次探討食品安全法之基本原則,包含預防原則、風險分析與透明原則,最後提出建議,供主管機關建立食品安全法制之參考。
英文關鍵詞: riskprecautionary principlefood safetyrisk analysisrisk assessmentrisk managementrisk communicationprinciple of proportionalityscientific uncertainty
英文摘要: Production, processing, packaging, transportation, storage, distribution and other stages of food chain are likely to cause food contamination and risks. Facing with systematization, complexity and globalization of food risks, many countries have taken precautionary principle and science-based risk analysis model to prevent foodborne diseases.
Based on the national obligation to protect the right to health and the task of risk prevention, the legislative and executive authorities are responsible to take precautionary measures against new food risks in the case of scientific uncertainties. The international trend of food safety law is the adoption of precautionary principle. After the dioxin and mad cow disease events, EU General Food Law (BasisVO 178/2002) adopted risk analysis, the precautionary principle and the principle of transparency as the basic principles of food safety law. Article 4 of Taiwan’s Act Governing Food Safety and Sanitation says: “The actions taken by the competent authority in the governing of food safety shall base on risk assessment and shall align with satisfying the citizens’ right to have healthy and safe food and the right to know, as well as the principles of scientific evidence, precaution, and information transparency. The competent authority shall establish a risk assessment and advisory system.”
This Article attempts to make reference to the EU legal system and experience to analyze precautionary principle as the primary food safety principle. First, it introduces the characteristics of new food risks, the responsibilities of the state and food industry for food safety and public- private partnership, including three steps of food risk management in food safety law. It then presents the analysis of the basic principles of risk-based food safety law, including the precautionary principle, risk analysis, and the principle of transparency. Finally, this Article will provide recommendations for the competent authority to establish a better food safety legal system to control food risk.
目  次: 壹、前言
貳、食品安全領域之新興風險
一、食品安全之基本概念:毒性、危險與風險
二、新興食品風險之特性
參、食品風險預防之責任體系
一、國家作為風險預防之管理者
二、食品業者對於風險預防之自主管理責任
三、食品風險預防之公私協力
肆、因應新興食品風險之預防原則及其具體化
一、預防原則作為對抗食品風險之基本原則
二、以風險分析實踐預防原則
三、以透明原則落實預防原則
伍、本文建議
一、符合預防原則之風險評估
二、風險管理合理化與正當化
三、落實風險溝通與食品安全資訊透明化
四、業者自主管理責任與階段責任之確立
陸、結論
相關法條:
相關判解:
相關函釋:
相關論著:
林昱梅,論食品安全管理法制中之預防原則:以歐盟與臺灣為中心,國立臺灣大學法學論叢,第 44 卷 特刊,1037-1162 頁,2015年11月。
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