法學期刊
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論著名稱:
從美國商品責任法論我國消保法商品責任之客觀歸責事由(Comments on the Objective Attributable Causes of Products Liability under Taiwan Consumer Protection Act from the U.S. Products Liability Law)
文獻引用
編著譯者: 吳淑莉
出版日期: 2015.12
刊登出處: 台灣/中原財經法學第 35 期/1-46 頁
頁  數: 46 點閱次數: 1785
下載點數: 184 點 銷售明細: 權利金查詢 變更售價
授 權 者: 吳淑莉
關 鍵 詞: 商品責任嚴格責任科技抗辯製造上瑕疵設計上瑕疵警告上瑕疵
中文摘要: 我國消保法第 7 條所規定之商品責任,乃以商品缺陷為法律上的歸責事由。而釐清商品缺陷之認定標準以及舉證責任之分配,以課予適當賠償責任,除能使受損害之消費者獲得賠償,更有助於企業經營者提供安全商品之動力,進而使消費環境趨於安全。
為釐清商品缺陷之認定標準,本文首先研究美國商品責任法,構成嚴格責任之理論,並探究判例法具體事實中如何認定商品是否有製造上、設計上或警告上瑕疵,以及科技抗辯證據於商品製造上、設計上或警告上瑕疵之意義。再研究我國實務上法院適用法律上的客觀歸責事由以及舉證責任分配之爭議,對照美國實務上已形成之認定瑕疵商品之各種標準,分析其論證基礎,建議適當之認定標準,供立法與實務參酌。
英文關鍵詞: Products LiabilityStrict LiabilityState of the ArtManufacturing DefectDesign DefectWarning Defect
英文摘要: In order to protect the right of consumers, Article 7 of Taiwan Consumer Protection Act imposes liability on manufacturers who provide any merchandise in a defective condition to any user or consumer without regard to fault. However, such liability is not absolute, so manufacturers are only held liable for the harm caused by merchandise in a defective condition unreasonably dangerous to the user or consumer given the state of scientific knowledge and technical expertise. Thus, it is particularly significant to clarify legal standards in determining defectiveness of merchandise and to appropriately allocate the burden of proof in order to promote product safety in addition to compensating victims.
Therefore, to establish appropriate legal standards, this Article reviews U.S.Products Liability Law, the doctrine of strict liability, and examines case law regarding legal standards to determine defectiveness in the context of design, manufacturing, and warning defects. Also, it explains how state of the art evidence is applied to these three types of product defects. It also discusses cases that deal with issues concerning burden of proof allocation and the application of objective attributable causes of products liability under Taiwan Consumer Protection Act. Finally, by studying U.S. case law with regard to legal tests of determining defectiveness of a product and by analyzing the related rationale, it offers some suggestions on legal tests that should be employed in courts and legislatures in Taiwan to determine the products liability of manufacturers.
目  次: 壹、前言
貳、美國商品責任法
一、嚴格責任之客觀歸責事由
二、科技抗辯
參、消保法商品責任之客觀歸責事由
一、客觀歸責事由之相關規範
二、檢視客觀歸責事由之修正
肆、我國實務案例研究
一、關於「通常可合理期待之安全性」之實務見解
二、關於「當時 科技或專業水準可合理期待之安全性」之實務見解
三、關於「警告義務」之實務見解
伍、結論
相關法條:
相關判解:
相關函釋:
相關論著:
吳淑莉,從美國商品責任法論我國消保法商品責任之客觀歸責事由,中原財經法學,第 35 期,1-46 頁,2015年12月。
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