法學期刊
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論著名稱:
因應全球暖化現象論經濟思維之重構及專利制度之修正(Reassessing Economic Ideology and Reforming Patent Law System in Light of Global Warming)
文獻引用
編著譯者: 謝祖松
出版日期: 2015.04
刊登出處: 台灣/國立中正大學法學集刊第 47 期/61-161 頁
頁  數: 101 點閱次數: 889
下載點數: 404 點 銷售明細: 權利金查詢 變更售價
授 權 者: 中正大學法律學系 授權者指定不分配權利金給作者)
關 鍵 詞: 專利全球暖化碳排放永續發展綠色科技環保進步性充分揭露技術移轉調和
中文摘要: 專利制度有追求進步之內涵,促成了工業化,可謂經濟成長之催化劑。但工業化的生產行為及其所刺激的消費行為,消耗許多能源,造成溫室氣體大量排放,導致全球暖化,故倡言永續發展時,也應討論如何修正專利法制以為因應。
經濟成長固然避免糧食不足現象發生,但因未區別消費需求性與欲求性之差異,亦未認知資源稀少性與耗竭性之不同,大量的消費及生產造成今日環境浩劫,實為全球暖化之癥結,故應導正偏誤之經濟思維。惜目前吾人仍不思降低欲求,不貫徹溫室氣體排放之限制,認為再生能源取代傳統能源,可維持經濟成長又解決全球暖化問題,實屬錯誤。
西方文化存有人定勝天,追物質水準提升的思維,故消耗過多資源,本文主張,經濟理論中供需原則應計入永續發展的成本,經濟成長亦應受適當限制,更應參照中華文化之順天思想以求返璞歸真,方屬革心治本之道。
因應全球暖化,專利制度必須以加速發展綠色科技,及限制溫室氣體排放為原則,積極進行修正。修正範圍應包括加強充分揭露、限制專利標的、調整實體要件、調整專利權期間、限制專利權實施、增加效力不及事項、適當使用舉發制度及強制授權、考量建立綠色科技計畫、配套內國其他法規、調和國際法規,及平衡國際技術移轉等,方能竟其全功。
英文關鍵詞: PatentGoble WarmingCarbon Dioxide EmissionSustainabilityGreen TechnologyEnvironmental ProtectionNonobviousnessSufficient DisclosureTechnology TransferHarmonization
英文摘要: The patent system has helped western countries move toward industrialization and acquire economic growth accordingly. However, the industrialized countries, along with their mass productions and limitless consumptions, had contributed excessive carbon dioxide emission, causing global warming and climate change in return. The existence of relationship between the patent system and global warming can be evidenced by checking, inter alia, its underlying incentive theory which supports the system with ideology to pursue industrial progress. So, the patent system can be deemed as a catalyst to economic growth, and amending the patent system is needed in light of global warming.
The progress ideology had survived in western culture, along with its derivatives of liberalism, capitalism, and consumerism. People tend to believe they are justified to pursuing to satisfaction of endless, evergrowing material wants. With that belief, the economic growth became nothing but a mechanism to reflect the material progress ideology.
Therefore, the material progress ideology shall be reassessed and ultimately discarded, and instead the Confucian and Taoist philosophies which suggest harmonizing with rather than challenging the mother nature shall be adopted. To be meaningfully conducting sustainable development, we must clearly identify the need from want, acknowledge the scarcity of resources, and significantly reduce the demand of consumption to save the energy and in return save the earth. And, the sustainable production shall be established and GHG emission limitation shall be set forth as a cap.
However, various schools of thoughts debate about whether amending to patent system can be utilized to resolve the global warming problem in considering of its neutrality in nature and lacking of legal authority. The author argues that the patent system can and shall be amended in this regards because the patent system itself is not a mere neutral platform for providing information, and the wording of patent regulations does provide authority for amending its regulations regarding environmental issues.
The author proposes to suggest amendments to the patent system itself, and harmonization with related regulations. For the former one, we need to provide more incentives to encouraging green technology filing by adopting a price model. And, we need to well define the contents of green technology without limiting it to be the renewable energy. Moreover, we need to expediting the examination of green invention, requiring sufficient disclosure of GHG emission information, examining the eligibility of subject matter from the environmental perspective, and incorporating the moral utility doctrine into patentability. And, we also need to adjusting length of patent term, revoking patents which are potential pollutants, and compulsory licensing if necessary. Also, we need to deal with green patent applications in a more effective way by adopting a green technology program.
For the latter one, we need to harmonize with domestic regulations, e.g., The Fundamental Science and Technology Act and The Environment Act, and various patent systems and international organizations around the world as well. Last, while green technologies are mostly held by developed countries, we need to transfer green technology patents to developing countries, such that more countries can be jointed as a team to resolve the global warming problem together.
目  次: 壹、緒言
貳、專利制度與全球暖化
一、追求「進步」之專利制度
二、專利制度催化經濟成長
三、經濟成長加速全球暖化
(一)生產行為所致之全球暖化
(二)消費行為所致之全球暖化
參、經濟成長之迷思
一、消費之「需求性」與「欲求性」混淆
二、資源之「稀少性」與「耗竭性」混淆
肆、永續發展之應有認知與現行作法
一、永續發展之應有認知
(一)追求物欲之揚棄
(二)經濟思維之重構
二、永續發展之現行作法
(一)環保規範之建構
(二)國際協議之締結
(三)再生能源之尋求
伍、修正專利制度之可行性與方向
一、修正專利制度之可行性
(一)中性平臺之爭議
(二)修正之法源依據
二、修正專利制度之方向
陸、專利制度之修正建議
一、鼓勵創作方式之修正
(一)審核式之檢討
(二)獎金式之倡議
二、綠色科技之明確定義
三、申請案審查之修正
(一)綠色科技之快速審查
(二)充分揭露之加強審查
(三)專利標的之擴大審查
(四)實體要件之調整審查
四、專利法關於專利權規範之修正
(一)專利權之期間調整
(二)專利權之實施限制
(三)專利權之效力不及
(四)專利權之舉發制度
(五)專利權之強制授權
五、綠色科技計畫之建立
六、內國法規之配套
七、國際規範之調和
八、國際間之技術移轉
柒、結論
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相關論著:
謝祖松,因應全球暖化現象論經濟思維之重構及專利制度之修正,國立中正大學法學集刊,第 47 期,61-161 頁,2015年04月。
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