法學期刊
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論著名稱:
事後違憲審查之潮流?-淺析法國違憲審查制度之新變革(The Trend of an a Posteriori Constitutional Review?--Analyses of the Recent Changes of the Constitutional Review in France)
文獻引用
編著譯者: 吳秦雯
出版日期: 2011.04
刊登出處: 台灣/憲政時代第 36 卷 第 4 期/375-409 頁
頁  數: 26 點閱次數: 807
下載點數: 104 點 銷售明細: 權利金查詢 變更售價
授 權 者: 吳秦雯
關 鍵 詞: 合憲性之優先問題事前違憲審查事後違憲審查基本權利憲法委員會
中文摘要: 法國 1958 年憲法創設之憲法委員會,採事前之違憲審查制度。此一事前審查制度在 2008 年 7 月 23 日後已然改觀,目前法國憲法明文增加人民對已經生效實行之法律,提出「合憲性之優先問題」的聲請違憲審查制度。此一制度賦予人民在訴訟程序過程中,向受理案件之法院提出合憲性之優先問題,再由法院將該問題移送最高法院或最高行政法院,倘最高法院或最高行政法院認為該當新問題或具備嚴肅性,則應將該問題移轉予憲法委員會進行審理。各級法院與憲法委員會審理合憲性之優先問題均有相當時限,亦有公開審理的相關規定。我國違憲審查制度原本即為事後審查,不過,人民提出釋憲聲請,除由法官提出釋憲聲請外,必須用盡通常訴訟救濟程序後方得為之,且大法官並未設有審理期限,在保護時效上,或許法國的新制度可提供若干借鏡。
英文關鍵詞: La Question Prioritaire de ConstitutionnaliteApplication for a Priority Preliminary Ruling on the Issue of ConstitutionalityA Posteriori Constitutional ReviewA Prior Constitutional ReviewConstitutional RightsConseil Constitutionnel
英文摘要: In France, the Constitutional Council was created by the Constitution of the Fifth Republic on October 4th, 1958. It performs a prior constitutional review. Since most of countries have a system of a posteriori constitutional review, the French model is unique.
The application for a priority preliminary ruling on the issue of constitutionality was introduced under the constitutional reform of July 23rd, 2008. An "application for a priority preliminary ruling on the issue of constitutionality" is the right for any person who is involved in legal proceedings before a court to argue that a statutory provision infringes rights and freedoms guaranteed by the Constitution.
When it is raised before a court of first instance or a court of appeal, the issue must be addressed without delay to The Conseil d'Etat or the Cour de cassation. The Conseil d'Etat or the Cour de cassation will then proceed to look more closely at the issue raised and decide whether or not to transmit the application to the Constitutional Council. Once conditions of admissibility have been complied with, the Constitutional Council will give its ruling within 3 months and take the public hearing process. The "application for a priority preliminary ruling on the issue of constitutionality" opens the new page for the French's constitutional review. The French people got the chance to access the constitutional review.
In Taiwan, our constitutional review is always a posteriori. However, an individual must be having exhausted all judicial remedies provided by law, alleges that her/his/its constitutional rights have been infringed upon and thereby questions the constitutionality of the law or order applied by the court of last resort in its final decision. The Constitutional Court interprets the petition for an interpretation of the Constitution without any period limit. The French new system might be a good example for us to examine.
目  次: 壹、前言
貳、法國採納合憲性之優先問題制度前之背景
  一、2008 年修憲產生新變革前之情況
  二、憲法委員會於 2009 年 12 月 3 日審查建制法決定中表現之立場
參、提起合憲性之優先問題之要件與程序
  一、要件
  二、程序
肆、迄今之發展-代結論
相關法條:
相關判解:
相關函釋:
相關論著:
吳秦雯,事後違憲審查之潮流?-淺析法國違憲審查制度之新變革,憲政時代,第 36 卷 第 4 期,375-409 頁,2011年04月。
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