法學期刊
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論著名稱:
德國災難防護法制之探討(A Study on German Legislation in Disaster Prevention and Protection)
文獻引用
編著譯者: 王韻茹
出版日期: 2016.10
刊登出處: 台灣/國立中正大學法學集刊第 53 期/199-230 頁
頁  數: 32 點閱次數: 957
下載點數: 128 點 銷售明細: 權利金查詢 變更售價
授 權 者: 王韻茹
關 鍵 詞: 災難防護法學災難防免災難預防災後復原災難應變緊急狀態法治國原則基本權利保障
中文摘要: 本文以比較法研究路徑,探討德國災難防護法學之建構,試圖瞭解彼國法律秩序如何應對造成人民平常生活中斷的「災難」事件。災難防護法學在德國曾遭受忽略甚久,歷經國際間多次的災難性事件後,法學界又重新開始探討這個受忽略許久的法律領域。從這波災難防護法學領域復興過程中,可看出當今真實的災難情況為災難防護法制結構帶來了挑戰,一方面災難應變除了排除災難損害與災後復原之外,如今還加上了災難避免與災難預防之思考;另一方面法律調控災難防護,也須符合憲法秩序之要求,主要是法治國原則,因為在災難防護領域涉及不同風險的管制與災難防護目的,其中涉及有限資源的優先性與分配決定,均與基本權利保障相關,因此必須透過民主決定的法律加以決定。參與災難防護的行動者不只是公權力部門,還有社會與個人,因而必須透過整合與協調才能迅速與有效地為災難預防與應變,在此也須透過法律加以建構不同層次的責任與災難治理。
英文關鍵詞: Disaster Prevention JurisprudenceDisaster AvoidanceDisaster PrecautionDisaster RecoveryDisaster ResponseEmergencyPrinciple of a Constitutional StateFundamental Rights Protection
英文摘要: This study adopted a comparative law approach to examine the development of disaster prevention laws and regulations in Germany and understand how Germany's related laws and regulations have addressed catastrophic disasters. Disaster prevention laws and regulations have long been neglected in Germany. Because of numerous worldwide disasters, jurisprudential circles in Germany have resumed discussion on relevant laws and regulations. This revived discussion has identified challenges posed by disasters to the institutional structure of disaster prevention laws and regulations. In addition to disaster loss reduction and disaster recovery, disaster prevention must incorporate disaster avoidance and disaster precaution. Additionally, laws and regulations for disaster prevention must comply with the constitutional requirements because disaster prevention encompasses various risks and disaster management aspects, some of which involve prioritizing the allocation of limited resources and thus are associated with the necessity to protect fundamental rights. Therefore, disaster prevention actions must be determined by democratic laws and regulations. In addition to the public sector, social groups and individuals may participate in disaster prevention activities. Thus, because effective disaster prevention and response requires collective collaboration and coordination, various levels of legal responsibilities and disaster prevention governance must be assigned through the legal system.
目  次: 壹、問題意識
貳、災難作為法律概念
參、災難防護法制的架構
一、災難防護權限的分配:三支柱的傳統結構
(一)聯邦權限與聯邦組織
(二)邦權限與邦組織
(三)財政負擔
二、災難防免與災難應變
三、社會層次:公私協力
肆、災難防護法制之憲法要求
一、國家結構原則與國家目標規定
二、基本權保障
三、災難防護行政法作為具體化的憲法
伍、結論
附錄:德國基本法條文(選錄)
相關法條:
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相關論著:
王韻茹,德國災難防護法制之探討,國立中正大學法學集刊,第 53 期,199-230 頁,2016年10月。
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