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論著名稱:
美國與臺灣就業歧視法制之舉證責任與適當比較基礎問題初探(The Burden of Proof and the Similarly Situated Comparator in the Employment Discrimination Law-A Comparative Research between America and Taiwan Law)
文獻引用
編著譯者: 傅柏翔
出版日期: 2018.09
刊登出處: 台灣/法令月刊第 69 卷 第 9 期/73-105 頁
頁  數: 29 點閱次數: 1041
下載點數: 116 點 銷售明細: 權利金查詢 變更售價
授 權 者: 傅柏翔
關 鍵 詞: 就業歧視差別待遇歧視舉證責任轉換適當比較基礎美國1964年民權法案第七章就業服務法性別工作平等法
中文摘要: 就業歧視法制度在我國施行已經超過25年,隨著法制的逐漸齊備和政府以及民間組織的持續推廣,就業歧視之理念已廣為大眾所知。進而,大家開始思考日常切身是否亦有就業歧視之發生,並開始考慮透過法律來維護權利的可能性。然其首要將面臨的門檻問題是,「如何認定就業歧視之存在」以及「誰要負責證明歧視之存在」。若未能先針對此些議題進行界定,歧視爭議之處理恐怕將成為眾說紛紜,你說有歧視我卻說應該沒成立的口水大戰。
為能深入的分析此議題,本文擬先透過比較法之研究,分析美國就業歧視法制在處理相關問題時的現況以及相關挑戰和應對方針,尤其是針對其運用「適當比較基礎」和「舉證責任轉換規則」來輔助認定就業歧視之成效進行研討,並試圖從中歸納出可供我國參酌的執行經驗和原理原則。進而,再歸納我國行政法院相關案例,觀察我國在認定就業歧視案件時,呈現什麼樣的脈絡樣態,並和美國法之經驗進行比較討論,最終,試圖提出相關之建議,供各界參考。
英文關鍵詞: Employment DiscriminationDisparate TreatmentShifting the Burden of ProofSimilarly Situated ComparatorTitle VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964Employment Service ActAct of Gender Equality in Employment
英文摘要: After more than 25 years of efforts on implementing the employment discrimination laws, the legal awareness of employment discrimination has been rooted in general public's mind. Many people are now capable of screening their living experience and workplace for possible discriminations. Moreover, some of them may start to consider the possibility to mobilize their rights through the employment discrimination law regime. This will lead them to the threshold questions: how can we recognize the discrimination and who bears the burden of proving discrimination. The use of "Similarly Situated Comparator" and the "Shifting of the Burden of Proof" play the key role in these discussions. Without clarifying these issues, the investigation of discrimination will end up to be a meaningless "he said and she said" story.
To analyze these issues, this article first initiates the comparative law research on U.S. employment discrimination laws to gather its implementing experience on recognizing discrimination and the allocation of the burden of proof. On the ground of this comparative research, a further analysis based on related Taiwan Administrative Court employment discrimination cases is conducted to shed light on Taiwan court's attitude and practice on these two key issues. By comparing the U.S. and Taiwan's court practice and theoretical developments, this article provides some recommendations to improve the employment discrimination law regimes and hope to raise comparative law discussions on related issues.
目  次: 壹、引言
貳、美國就業歧視制度之舉證責任分配概述和「適當比較基礎」之運用和挑戰
一、美國就業歧視制度和舉證責任分配概述
二、「適當比較基礎」運用在美國法院實務上的優缺點
三、針對「適當比較基礎」問題之可能解方
四、小結
參、臺灣就業歧視制度運用「適當比較基礎」以及舉證責任轉換之情形初探
一、「適當比較基礎」在法院之運用
二、臺灣就業歧視通盤採納舉證責任轉換理念之倡議和法律解釋依據
肆、結論
相關法條:
相關判解:
相關函釋:
相關論著:
傅柏翔,美國與臺灣就業歧視法制之舉證責任與適當比較基礎問題初探,法令月刊,第 69 卷 第 9 期,73-105 頁,2018年09月。
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