法學期刊
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論著名稱: 從可矜可憫到酌減-民初大理院判決中的原情定罪(A Punishment from Being Pitiable to Being Reduced at Discretion - The Principle of Yuan Qing Din Zui on the Basis of Legal Cases of the Dali Yuan in Early Republican China)
編著譯者: 黃源盛
出版日期: 2018.09
刊登出處: 台灣/國立高雄大學法學論叢第 14 卷 第 1 期 /79-127 頁
頁  數: 49 點閱次數: 783
下載點數: 196 點 銷售明細: 權利金查詢 變更售價
授 權 者: 黃源盛
關 鍵 詞: 可矜可憫酌減原情定罪大理院判例
中文摘要: 傳統中國的法理思想與法律規範,向有因犯罪情狀而得減輕刑罰的理念與實際。而為了因應案情的懸殊,在司法實踐面乃出現「原情定罪」的審判原則,以清代「秋審」制來說,監候秋審的案件按其所犯性質、情節,區分成情實、緩決、可矜、可疑、留養承嗣等五類,其中「可矜」者,乃罪名屬實,但情有可原,可免死減等。
時至今日,我國現行刑法第 59 條規定:「犯罪之情狀顯可憫恕,認科以最低度刑仍嫌過重者,得酌量減輕其刑。」被稱為「法官之淚」的這條規範溯源何自?與傳統中國法制有無關聯?清末民初繼受歐陸刑法以來,原情定罪的審判原則有何衍化?如何落實到刑事立法與司法實踐當中?它的歷史價值與時代意義各為何?凡此諸問,很值得探究,乃趁著擁有珍稀立法史料與裁判文書之便,本文從法史學的觀點,以民初大理院(1912-1928)的相關判例為軸心,旁及立法經緯及當代刑法,逐一細說,以明「原情定罪原則」深刻的傳統價值與時代意義。
英文關鍵詞: CompassionReduction of penaltyYuan Qing Din ZuiDali Yuan in Making decisions 84
英文摘要: In traditional China, the thought and practice of the law which consider to reduce the sentence of punishment according to different circumstances of crime always consist in jurisprudence and legal system. In order to balance the crime and the guilty of cases, the principle of “Yuan Qing Din Zui”(原情定罪) was used in the judicial practice. For example, in Qing Dynasty, a person who be sentenced to death penalty would be determined to be executed or not by a judicial procedure which is called “Autumn Review”(秋審). According to the circumstances, the conclusion of the Autumn Review trial was divided to five categories: actual reality, suspension, compassion, doubt, and put a defendant to probation and let him to take care his parents. Among these categories, a defendant could be reduced the sentence of punishment if he was sentenced to the “compassion” .
Today, the article 59 of the Criminal Code in Taiwan concerning “A punishment may be reduced at discretion if the circumstances of the commission of the offense are so pitiable that even the minimum punishment is considered too severe” be called” the judge’s tears.” In addition, this paper tries to explore the following points: What is the source of the article 59 in Taiwan? Is it related to the law in traditional China? What is the change of “Yuan Qing Din Zui” during the period of time from late Qing Dynasty to early Republican China? and, how is this principle be practiced by legislation or judiciary? Further, the object of this article tries to illustrate the traditional values and the significance of the principle of “Yuan Qing Din Zui” on the basis of legal cases of “Dali Yuan”(大理院) (1912-1928) and legislative archives, especially from the viewpoint of the history of criminal law.
目  次: 壹、引言-從一則案例談起
貳、傳統中國刑案中的情罪平允
一、唐代「康買得救父殺人案」
二、清代「縱妻犯姦案」
參、晚清民初酌減的立法衍化
一、清末的刑事立法
二、民國時期的立法與修法
肆、民初大理院關於酌減案例探析
一、酌減事由必須與本案具有關連性
二、酌減以處以法定刑之最輕刑猶嫌過重者
三、酌減以犯罪本人之心術及其犯罪事實情輕者為限
四、酌減以犯人心術及事實二者有一情輕可原者即可
五、第三審法院得依職權逕為酌減之認定
六、不符合酌減規定者
伍、酌減的歷史、理論與比較立法例
一、酌減是否須明文的思辨與立法史的發展
二、原情定罪的傳統價值與當代意義
陸、結論
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