法學期刊
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論著名稱:
南海航行自由爭議-「中」美觀點與立場之評析(Disputes of Freedom of Navigation in the South China Sea: Perspectives and Analysis between China and the United States)
文獻引用
編著譯者: 高木蘭
出版日期: 2019.08
刊登出處: 台灣/銘傳大學法學論叢第 31 期/89-138 頁
頁  數: 50 點閱次數: 833
下載點數: 200 點 銷售明細: 權利金查詢 變更售價
授 權 者: 銘傳大學法律學院 授權者指定不分配權利金給作者)
關 鍵 詞: 聯合國海洋法公約專屬經濟海域國際水域航行自由越權海域主張航行自由行動美國印太司令部美國國家利益U 形線歷史性水域
中文摘要: 美國卡特政府自 1979 年 3 月推出「自由航行」計畫後,迄今已有 40 年之歷史,美國認為中國大陸自軍力崛起後,即試圖挑戰海上航行自由與和平秩序;北京則以美國係藉由「航行自由」之名行違法挑釁之實,美軍之舉除損害沿岸國主權與安全、危害地區和平與穩定外,「航行自由」之主張其實為偽裝之「海洋霸權主義」,甚至以「偽命題」稱之。
美國從歐巴馬主政起,即宣稱重返亞太,並積極參與南海事務。川普繼任後,美軍為確保所謂「國際水域」之航行自由,仍以具體行動挑戰中國於南海所謂越權之海域主張,而為因應當前亞太情勢,美國國防部長馬蒂斯遂於 2018 年 5 月 30 日宣布將「太平洋司令部」更名為「印太司令部」。此外,美國副總統彭斯於同年 11 月,除公開表示美軍於南海執行任務時,不受恫嚇、不退卻之立場外,並直言「南海不屬於任何國家」,藉以彰顯美國捍衛航行自由之正當性。然而,對於南海海域是否存在航行自由之問題,雙方迄今仍是各自表態,未有交集。
英文關鍵詞: United Nations Convention on the Law of the SeaExclusive Economic ZoneInternational WatersFreedom of NavigationExcessive Maritime ClaimsFreedom of Navigation OperationsU.S. Indo-Pacific CommandU.S. National InterestsU-shape LineHistoric Waters
英文摘要: In order to challenge excessive maritime claims and protect Freedom of Navigation (FON) of international waters, the Jimmy Carter Administration initiated a FON Program in March 1979. It seems to the U.S. that China is trying to challenge FON and peaceful order after its rise of sea power, and militarize the features it occupies in the South China Sea (SCS). As a result, the Trump Administration keeps conducting FONOPs in the SCS to protest so-called illegal claims states by China. However, the Beijing government believes that FON dose provoke and harm the sovereignty of the coastal States, safety, peace and stability in the region. Furthermore, FON is a false proposition and maritime hegemonism in disguise.
Although the U.S. is not the claimant and takes no sides in the SCS sovereignty disputes, it actively participates in the SCS affairs under Obama’s Asia strategy. In response to the current situation, the former Secretary of Defense James N. Mattis even announced that they renamed the U.S. Pacific Command to U.S. Indo-Pacific Command in May 30, 2018. In addition, Vice President Mike Pence also criticized China’s actions in the SCS and declared the SCS does not belong to any one nation. He reaffirmed the U.S. will continue to sail and fly wherever international law allows. As to the aforesaid disputes of FON in the SCS, each side so far has its own interpretation.
目  次: 壹、前言
貳、航行自由與美國國家利益
一、航行自由之源起
二、美國於南海之國家利益
三、中國大陸之核心利益
四、中華民國之國家利益
參、航行自由之法律爭辯
一、南海航行自由爭議
二、中國大陸之論點
三、美國之法律主張
四、中華民國之立場與主張
肆、美國之國家實踐
伍、結語
相關法條:
相關判解:
相關函釋:
相關論著:
高木蘭,南海航行自由爭議-「中」美觀點與立場之評析,銘傳大學法學論叢,第 31 期,89-138 頁,2019年08月。
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