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論著名稱:
歐盟新著作權指令之「連結稅」和「上傳過濾器」條款-背景、爭議與影響(The “Link Tax” and “Upload Filters” under the New EU Copyright Directive: Background Information, Controversy, and Impact)
文獻引用
編著譯者: 謝國廉
出版日期: 2020.12
刊登出處: 台灣/科技法律評析第 12 期/1-26 頁
頁  數: 26 點閱次數: 624
下載點數: 104 點 銷售明細: 權利金查詢 變更售價
授 權 者: 國立高雄科技大學科技法律研究所 授權者指定不分配權利金給作者)
關 鍵 詞: 連結稅上傳過濾器數位單一市場之著作權指令網路服務提供者平面新聞媒體的出版業者平面新聞媒體出版品線上內容分享服務的提供者
中文摘要: 歐洲議會與歐盟部長理事會於 2019 年 4 月通過了歐盟「數位單一市場之著作權指令」。新指令的第 15 條和第 17 條分別涉及「連結稅」(“Link Tax”)和「上傳過濾器」(“Upload Filters”)等2 項重大爭議。首先,新指令施行後,平面新聞媒體按新指令第15 條連結稅條款,就其新聞出版品的線上利用,將享有的「平面新聞媒體的線上重製權」與「平面新聞媒體的線上提供權」等 2 項權利。平面新聞媒體未來得就新聞出版品的線上使用行為,向使用者(通常為網路服務提供者)收取權利金,而使用者的營運成本將因此而增加。按本文的分析,由於造成媒體經營危機的因素眾多,因此以創設新的權利提升平面新聞媒體收益,長期而言恐怕收效甚微。其次,新指令第 17 條賦予權利人一項「線上傳播被上傳著作或其他受保護客體的權利」。當內容服務提供者傳播網路使用者所上傳的他人著作或其他權利客體時,應以訂定授權協議等方式,取得權利人的同意。令人憂心的是,網路使用者未得授權而上傳內容至網路平台的行為,將受到前所未有的嚴格限制。按本文的分析,內容服務提供者未來可能自願建置類似於上傳過濾器的篩選機制,而此種過濾機制將可能對網路內容的多元性、完整性甚至歐洲整體的表意自由,帶來負面的衝擊。
英文關鍵詞: Link taxUpload FilterDirective on Copyright in the Digital Single MarketInternet Service ProvidersPublishers of Press PublicationsPress PublicationsOnline Content-Sharing Service Providers
英文摘要: The European Parliament and the Council of European Union adopted Directive on Copyright in the Digital Single Market in April 2019. Articles 15 and 17 of the 2019 Directive concern two major issues, namely “link tax” and “upload filters”. First, as the 2019 Directive enters into force, Article 15 relating to “link tax” grants two types of right to publishers of press publications. These rights concern online use of press publications. The publishers are entitled to preventing reproducing press publications online and to preventing making available to the public online other subject-matters. The users of press publications, most likely internet service providers, will then need to make payments to the publishers for the online uses. For the internet service providers, this reform increases operating costs. The analysis of this Article indicates that there are various factors behind the financial difficulties that the media have faced during the last decade. The individual efforts such as granting new rights to the publishers may not help end the financial crisis effectively. Second, under Article 17 of the 2019 Directive, rights owners are entitled to preventing online content-sharing service providers from sharing contents uploaded by third parties. These service providers should sign a licensing agreement with the rights owners to obtain permission. A major concern is that the acts of unauthorised content sharing will face unprecedented restrictions. The analysis of this Article indicates that the service providers could voluntarily establish the upload filters or similar systems. Such systems would presumably result in negative impacts on the diversity and integrity of online contents and on freedom of expression in Europe.
目  次: 壹、前言
貳、立法背景
一、連結稅爭議之背景:傳播媒體產業面臨經營的困境
二、上傳過濾器爭議之背景:內容服務提供者有侵權之虞
參、連結稅條款之評析
一、權利種類、保護範圍與性質
二、保護期間
肆、上傳過濾器條款之評析
伍、結論
相關法條:
相關判解:
相關函釋:
相關論著:
謝國廉,歐盟新著作權指令之「連結稅」和「上傳過濾器」條款-背景、爭議與影響,科技法律評析,第 12 期,1-26 頁,2020年12月。
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