法學期刊
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論著名稱:
歐洲人工智慧專利保護要件之研究(Patentability Requirements of Artificial Intelligence in Europe)
文獻引用
編著譯者: 黃雯琪謝國廉
出版日期: 2020.12
刊登出處: 台灣/科技法律評析第 12 期/103-156 頁
頁  數: 53 點閱次數: 547
下載點數: 212 點 銷售明細: 權利金查詢 變更售價
授 權 者: 國立高雄科技大學科技法律研究所 授權者指定不分配權利金給作者)
關 鍵 詞: 人工智慧電腦軟體專利標的適格性進步性專利保護要件
中文摘要: 本文以歐洲實務界的專利審查機制為中心,探討人工智慧之專利保護。依據現行歐洲專利公約之規定,人工智慧相關發明無法直接取得專利保護,必須尋求其他法律解釋或法規修正,如近年來,歐洲專利審查基準增訂人工智慧專章,針對人工智慧相關發明取得專利權保護之可能進行討論。人工智慧專利申請與審查的核心爭議,在於「核心人工智慧」實際上為數學演算法本身,而數學演算法本身乃是歐洲專利公約規範之純粹數學方法,將被排除於專利保護之外。為了解決此一難題,本文借鑑與人工智慧本質近似、且同樣無法直接取得專利權的電腦軟體,電腦軟體專利申請及審查的發展沿革中,尤以專利標的適格性與進步性(即發明高度)的判斷標準,對人工智慧的專利保護具有重要的影響。專利標的適格性,主要審查發明客體是否符合取得專利保護的資格,與進步性需實質考量發明的技術效果、技術貢獻,分屬不同階段,應有所區別。若將進步性中的審查內容,前置於專利標的適格性進行判斷,將無法達成步驟審查之有效分工,且可能產生架空之問題。因此,有必要避免此兩階段審查內容之相互混淆。本文觀察歐洲實務界近年來的態度,其一方面放寬專利標的適格性的判斷標準,一方面加強進步性的實質審查,擴大多元化發明客體進行實質審查的可能,將有助於未來人工智慧相關發明的專利保護,可作為我國未來人工智慧專利法制應用的參考。
英文關鍵詞: Artificial IntelligenceComputer SoftwarePatent Subject Matter EligibilityInventive StepPatentability Requirements
英文摘要: This Article, which analyses the patent protection of artificial intelligence in Europe, focuses on the examination of AI patent applications. Under the European Patent Convention, the patent protection of AI is not readily available. Interpretation of the Convention as well as amendments of relevant legal instruments are necessary. Thus, the European Patent Office has in recent years issued revised Guidelines for Examination to deal with the disputes concerning examination of AI patent applications. A major problem here concerns “core AI”, which is mathematical algorisms. Algorisms are in principle not patentable as they fall within the scope of “mathematical methods as such” in the Convention. This Article first considers the patent protection of computer software. The main issues relating to AI patents and those concerning software patents are similar. As to examination of software patent applications, subject matter eligibility and the requirement of inventive step are particularly important. The tests relating to subject matter and inventive step remain crucial in the examination of AI patent examination. On the one hand, subject matter eligibility determines whether an invention is eligible for patent protection. On the other hand, the requirement of inventive step concerns the technical effect of an invention. It is necessary to draw a clear distinction between the subject matter eligibility and inventive step requirement. Otherwise, AI patent examinations may result in disputes and confusion. Analysis in this Article indicates that the European Patent Office has slightly relaxed the subject matter test, and it has focused on the examination regarding inventive steps of AI inventions. It is worth taking
these recent trends into consideration with a view to improving patent protection of AI technologies in Taiwan.
目  次: 壹、前言
貳、人工智慧之技術發展及其與電腦軟體之關聯
 一、人工智慧之技術發展
 二、人工智慧與電腦軟體之關聯
參、歐洲專利公約之相關規範與審查實務
 一、歐洲專利公約之發明制度
 二、電腦軟體專利之認定標準
 三、人工智慧專利之認定標準
肆、結論
相關法條:
相關判解:
相關函釋:
相關論著:
黃雯琪、謝國廉,歐洲人工智慧專利保護要件之研究,科技法律評析,第 12 期,103-156 頁,2020年12月。
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