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論著名稱: 論取締酒駕與其刑事程序(Reviewing Drunken Driving Ban and Its Criminal Procedure)
編著譯者: 林朝雲
出版日期: 2020.06
刊登出處: 台灣/東吳法研論集第 10 卷 /59-113 頁
頁  數: 36 點閱次數: 693
下載點數: 144 點 銷售明細: 權利金查詢 變更售價
授 權 者: 林朝雲
關 鍵 詞: 醉態駕駛血液酒精濃度酒駕路檢臨檢攔停與拍搜犯罪偵查
中文摘要: 酒後駕駛是指服用酒類或其他藥物後,導致駕駛人無法安全駕駛或操作動力交通工具的犯罪。從 1968 年起我國已經有處罰酒駕的規定。在 1999 年之前酒醉駕駛的處罰僅規定於道路交通管理處罰條例第35條,屬於行政罰的範疇。隨著刑法第 185 條 5 之 3 的立法,酒駕於 1999 年之後迄今亦可能處以刑事罰。換句話說,現今酒醉駕駛已經不再是純粹行政不法行為,而可能是刑事犯。由於已醉態的駕駛可能同時涉及行政程序及刑事程序,所以警方不得允許或勸誘駕駛人任意拒絕接受血液中酒精濃度的測試,蓋本國警察無犯罪偵查的最終決定權。警察臨檢不同於刑事上的逮捕及搜索程序,然而兩者之間可能發生程序上的轉換。警方執行酒駕取締應明辨兩種不同程序間的區別以維護人權。以刑事程序中的逮捕及警察臨檢中的攔停為例,刑事逮捕是一個冗長的過程,犯罪嫌疑人被帶到警察局進行犯罪偵查,而攔停只涉及暫時干涉人身自由。如果員警在接觸時發現了刑事證據,因而攔停亦可能導致實質上的逮捕,但如果沒有進一步的刑事證據被發現,則任由受檢人離去。最後,除了總結目前執行酒駕路檢實務運作之看法外,本文並提出修法建議。
英文關鍵詞: driving while intoxicated(DWI)blood alcohol concentration(BAC)spotcheckdrunken driving checkpointsstop and friskCriminal Investigation
英文摘要: Driving under the influence (DUI)is the crime of driving or operating a motor vehicle after taking alcohol or other drugs, to a level that renders the driver incapable of operating a motor vehicle safely. Since 1968, the provisions on the punishment for drunken driving have been enacted in our country. Before 1999, the penalty for drunken driving was only based on Article 35 of Road Traffic Management Punishment Code, which belonged to the category of administrative penalty. After 1999, the drunken driving may be punishable by criminal penalties along with the enactment of the article 185-3 of Criminal law. In other words, nowadays the drunken driving is no longer an completely administrative illegal act, nevertheless, it could be a criminal offence. Owing to driving while intoxicated (DWI) may involve in administrative and criminal procedures, therefore, the police must not enable or induce drivers just as their wishes to refuse to blow into intoxilyzers or blood alcohol con centration(BAC) tests on ac count of the police have no power of final decision on criminal investigation in the existing law. The main purpose of this paper is to illustrate that the police spot-check is different from the criminal arrest and search procedure, however, there may be a procedural conversion between the two. Police crack down on drunken driving should distinguish between the two different procedures to protect human rights. For example, an arrest in criminal proceedings is a lengthy process in which the suspect is taken to the police station for criminal 1investigation, whereas a stop in the police spot-check involves only a temporary interference with a person's liberty. If the police officer uncovers criminal evidence during the frisk, the stop may lead to an actual arrest, but if no further criminal evidence is found, the person is released. Finally, in addition to summing up the crack down on drunken driving checkpoints of current practices, this paper also puts forward some suggestions to amend the law.
目  次: 壹、前言
貳、臨檢的法律屬性
一、臨檢用語之涵義
二、我國警職法的定位
參、酒駕路檢與犯罪偵查之關聯性
一、就立法例而言
二、就目的而言
三、就兩者間之手段交錯而言
四、程序換軌的鎖鑰-知有犯罪嫌疑
肆、取締酒駕法律適用上之交錯
一、醉態駕駛罪的修法脈絡
二、現行刑法有關酒駕的處罰規定
(一)酒測值達法定標準以上者
(二)酒測值未達法定標準值者
(三)國內學說對現行立法模式的質疑
(四)肯定現行法的見解
(五)醉態駕駛罪修法後新詮
三、駕駛人是否有權拒絕酒測
四、強制酒測有無違反不自證己罪或侵犯緘默權
伍、結論與建議
一、結論
二、建議
(一)增訂以偵查犯罪為目的之管制站條文
(二)道交條例第 35 條第 5 項應予配套修正
(三)增訂同意抽血檢測之規定
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