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論著名稱:
德國民法工程契約中承攬債權擔保之研究與台灣法制之借鑑(A Comparative Study on Security of Payment under Construction Contract between German and Taiwan Law)
文獻引用
編著譯者: 黃立
出版日期: 2021.09
刊登出處: 台灣/國立高雄大學法學論叢第 17 卷 第 1 期/45-78 頁
頁  數: 33 點閱次數: 890
下載點數: 132 點 銷售明細: 權利金查詢 變更售價
授 權 者: 黃立
關 鍵 詞: 德國民法承攬篇工程契約法工程款擔保工程契約建築手工業匠人的擔保
中文摘要: 德國聯邦上議會於 2017 年 3 月 31 日,通過了由聯邦下議會議於 2017 年 3 月 10 所通過之修正承攬篇工程契約法之法案,該法律規定於德國民法第 650a-650v)。這是德國首次將工程契約(650a-650o)、建築師與工程師契約(650p-650t),以及定作人契約(650u-650v)訂入民法之中。這些修正於 2018 年 1 月 1 日生效,其效力僅及於自該日起締結之契約,舊契約不受此法條修正之影響。本文僅討論修法後,德國民法工程契約章承攬債權擔保的問題,及其與台灣法制之比較。
在觀察德國對承攬人債權擔保制度時,應該將德國民法第 647 條與第 647a 條,第 650e 條和第 650f 條所規範之擔保方式合併觀察,且相互補充。制定這些擔保方式的目的,在於對承攬人的先行給付義務做經濟上的均衡,以保障承攬人因承攬契約所生金錢債權。制定的動機是源自於破產法。立法者希望能均衡承攬人先行給付的義務,因承攬契約所生金錢債權於定作人破產時,給予承攬人別除權。
德國立法者與司法實務對於承攬人依據契約應先為給付,所產生之風險牢記在心。因此在立法與實務上均追求降低承攬人之風險。台灣民法第 513 條是唯一的對承攬人保障的條文,欠缺了類似德國民法第 650f 條的規定。台灣的建商多半要求營造廠商拋棄此一抵押權,造成台灣民法第 513 條甚少有派上用場的機會,將來修法的時候可以考慮做適當之修正。
英文關鍵詞: German Civil Codeconstruction contract law under hire of workthe security of payment for the constructionconstruction contractconstruction craftsmen’s security
英文摘要: On March 31, 2017, the Senate in the Federal Republic of Germany passed the “Law on the Reform of Construction Contract Law”, which had already been passed by the House of Representatives of the Federal Republic Germany on March 10. In Sections 650a-650v of the German Civil Code (BGB), this anchors for the first time special legal regulations on building contracts (Sections 650a-650o), architects' and engineers' contracts (Sections 650p-650t) and property developers' contracts (Sections 650u-650v). The changes come into force on January, 01, 2018 and only affect contracts concluded from this date. Current contracts are not affected by the changes. This paper analyses only the issues of the security of payment under construction contract after the changes, and compares the new system with the legal frame of Taiwan.
The contractor’s security of payment has been regulated in several articles of BGB, to observe the German guarantee methods should combine article 647 with the article 647a, Article 650e and Article 650f, and complement each other.
The purpose of formulating these guarantee mechanisms is to balance the economic risks of the contractor for who has to finish work prior to the payment from the employer, so as to protect the contractor’s monetary claims arising from the contract. The motivation for the formulation was derived from the bankruptcy law (§ 50 Abs. 1 Bankruptcy Code). The legislators hoped to balance the contractor’s obligation to pay in advance, and grant the contractor the exclusive right for monetary claims arising from the contract to exempt from the employer’ s bankruptcy.
German legislators and judicial practice always keep in mind the risks that the contractor should finish work prior to the payment from the employer according to the contract. Therefore, both legislation and practice seek to reduce the risk of contractors.
Article 513 of the Taiwan Civil Law is the only provision to protect the contractor, and it lacks provisions similar to Article 650f of the German Civil Law. Most Taiwanese builders require constructors to abandon this mortgage. As a result, Article 513 of the Taiwan Civil Law rarely comes in handy. When the law is revised in the future, appropriate amendments can be considered.
目  次: 壹、前言:工程定義
貳、德國民法上承攬人之法定擔保權
  一、承攬人的動產質權
  二、建築手工業匠人的擔保抵押權
  三、船廠所有人的擔保抵押權
  四、建築手工業匠人的擔保
  五、拒絕提供擔保之法律效果
參、台灣就承攬人先行給付之資金周轉困境的措施
  一、預付款制度
  二、台灣民法第 513 條與德民法第 650e 條的比較
肆、結論
相關法條:
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相關函釋:
相關論著:
黃立,德國民法工程契約中承攬債權擔保之研究與台灣法制之借鑑,國立高雄大學法學論叢,第 17 卷 第 1 期,45-78 頁,2021年09月。
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