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論著名稱: 區塊鏈在競爭法上之定位與適用問題
編著譯者: 郭戎晉
出版日期: 2021.10
刊登出處: 台灣/公平交易季刊第 29 卷 第 4 期 /33-82 頁
頁  數: 41 點閱次數: 168
下載點數: 164 點 銷售明細: 權利金查詢 變更售價
授 權 者: 郭戎晉
關 鍵 詞: 區塊鏈競爭法相關市場市場力量區塊鏈即服務分散式應用程式
中文摘要: 區塊鏈是當前最受矚目的嶄新技術之一,然相關實務應用也引發了諸多過往未曾想見的新興課題,其係促進競爭抑或可能導致反競爭,存在著不同觀點。當區塊鏈涉及反競爭爭端,界定相關市場並衡量涉案競爭事業之市場力量無疑是首要工作,儘管區塊鏈展現多元應用可能,現階段區塊鏈尚無經濟層面的成熟市場,而學理上亦未見較有體系的產品市場梳理。揆諸國際產業研究資料,本文認為現階段區塊鏈產品市場可合理劃分為「區塊鏈基礎服務市場」與「區塊鏈應用市場」;在競爭事業市場力量判斷上,則可優先考量營收數據,惟須留意區塊鏈應用(分散式應用程式)市場以原生代幣計價及換算下產生的真實/可信度問題。若營收資訊未臻完備或存在失真之虞,可輔以區塊鏈系統本身的相關數據進行推估,如用戶數量、交易筆數、實際成立的智能契約、區塊數量等因素,或相關因素之組合具體評估事業之市場占有率,然而運算能力應否採納為判斷標準,本文認為在共識機制持續更迭及礦池產業出現重大變化下,現階段仍有變數而應視個案情況而定。區塊鏈對競爭法帶來的衝擊,事實上並不以區塊鏈本身達到實質意義的相關市場才出現,當固有相關市場亦可窺見區塊鏈應用身影時,除思索如何克服技術特性對當前競爭執法立即產生的挑戰,如何化科技難題為可用的競爭監管工具,亦是探究新興科技適法爭議時應併同思考之重要事項。
英文關鍵詞: BlockchainCompetition LawRelevant MarketMarket PowerBlockchain as a ServiceDecentralized Applications
英文摘要: Blockchain technology has the potential to revolutionize many industries, but this hottest technology gives rise to questions under competition-related legislation. Viewed from a competition policy perspective, a blockchain might create opportunities to enhance competition and efficiency, but it also brings risks of anticompetitive conduct. To treat the competition-related legal issues involved in blockchain technology, it is necessary to first define the "relevant market" and measure the "market power" of the relevant competitors. Although the blockchain has moved beyond the experimental stage and exhibits the possibility of diversified applications, it has not yet emerged into the mainstream. The author suggests that the blockchain product market should be divided into a "Blockchain Basic Services Market" and a "Blockchain Application (dApp) Market". In judging the market power of competitive enterprises, the revenue data can be given priority. If the revenue information is incomplete or in doubt, the relevant data of the blockchain system itself can be used as auxiliary factors, such as the number of users, number of recorded transactions, number of smart contracts, or number of blocks. Furthermore, a combination of these may be relied on to assess the dominance. In addition, as to whether the "amount of computing" should be taken into account in judging market power, with the continued emergence of new consensus mechanisms and major changes in the mining pools, there is still uncertainty and it should thus depend on the circumstances of each case. Blockchain technology not only leads to innovation in new relevant markets, but it also changes the appearance and operating patterns of many existing markets. Even if the blockchain itself is not yet a relevant market, its technical characteristics still have a direct impact on the enforcement of competition law. In thinking about how to overcome the challenges posed by blockchain and other emerging technologies, we should also consider the possibility of transforming those technologies into useful regulatory tools at the same time.
目  次: 一、前言
二、區塊鏈與產業競爭規範
(一)區塊鏈基本概念
(二)區塊鏈架構發展與主要分類
(三)區塊鏈實務應用概況
(四)促進競爭抑或導致反競爭
三、區塊鏈在競爭法上之判斷:相關市場界定問題
(一)相關市場之界定
(二)區塊鏈與產品市場
(三)區塊鏈與地理市場
(四)市場力量之判斷
(五)小結
四、區塊鏈對競爭執法之影響
(一)執法層面之影響不以區塊鏈相關市場為限
(二)去中心化
(三)資料共享與透明化
(四)資料演算加密
(五)小結
六、結語
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