法學期刊
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論著名稱:
群體權利主體思維之初探-由公害損害賠償之因果關係證明難題談起(Preliminary Approach to Group Rights in Civil Law: With Reference to Liability of Public Nuisance Events)
文獻引用
編著譯者: 邱玟惠
出版日期: 2022.04
刊登出處: 台灣/法學叢刊第 67 卷 第 2 期/1-40 頁
頁  數: 40 點閱次數: 759
下載點數: 160 點 銷售明細: 權利金查詢 變更售價
授 權 者: 法學叢刊雜誌社
關 鍵 詞: 權利主體群體權利主體群體權利群體集體權利個人權利團體訴訟公害事件損害賠償因果關係
中文摘要: 現代之公害經常產生超乎個人之損害,此種科學技術、社會整體環境之變動導致侵權行為態樣、受侵害之權利態樣產生變化,因此民事救濟制度上,對於權利主體之種類變化、相關之團體或個人之權利或利益之內涵變動,自應有所對應。為能解決公害民事賠償事件之因果關係舉證困境,本文嘗試建構民事法上之群體權利主體思維,將受損害之個人,改以事件中具有共同利益與相同身份或處境之複數受害人集合作為一群體權利主體,而就「增加受害成員數」之損害進行求償,此乃因觀察民事法上權利主體概念之演進,即可發現自然人之定義並非一成不變,而法人及準人格(譬如胎兒),亦由不被認可而漸次地至被承認具有人格,足見法律上人格之認定具有變動之可能,且其態樣與內涵,實係對應當時具體社會價值需求之結果。若然,即僅須以公害暴露與此群體整體罹癌率增加相關聯之科學上證據,證立公害與該受害者組成之群體權利主體間所受損害之因果關係,一方面巧妙地迴避個別被害人個別舉證之難題,另一方面可精準地將加害人之賠償範圍總數額限縮於與「因公害污染所增加」之罹病比例。據此,群體權利主體之建制與運用,可解決公害賠償事件之舉證困境,落實損害賠償法之公平正義。
英文關鍵詞: Subject of RightsSubject of Group RightsGroup Rights, GroupCollective RightsIndividual RightsClass LitigationPublic Nuisance EventsDamagesCausation
英文摘要: In the contemporary or near future juridical context, the causal inquiry might play the crucial role more frequent than ever, especially in the rising litigations of environmental, toxic, irradiational, electron-magnetic torts… etc. In such litigations, establishing the causation connection between the alleged causes and the injuries complained of is probably the most difficult task.
Much effort in the heavily piled legal literature has been devoted to the topic “causation” in order to relieve the burden of proof on the “individual” plaintiff, however only very limited success has been achieved. The proof of the causation between the injuries of individual victim and the accused environmental factor is generally difficult to establish, because the individual is obliged to prove that his injury is caused by the very accused factor and not others. On the other hand, the establishment of the causation between the injuries of a group of victims as a whole (for example, the victims lived in the same contaminated area exposed to the same environmental factor) and the accused environmental factor seems much more easier, because they only has to prove that the morbidity incidence of the group raised markedly when the group of people exposed to accused environmental factor, and the increased part of the morbidity incidence is caused by the accused factor. Unfortunately the concept of “group rights” has not yet been recognized in our contemporary civil law, though the collective public rights have been stipulated in Taiwan Code of Civil Procedure.
This study is devoted to investigate the feasibility of introducing the concept of “group rights” into our civil law. First, the study will elaborate the fundamentals and evolutions of the subject of civil rights with special reference to not only our legal systems but also the legal systems of other countries. In the study, we conscientiously try to define the concept of “group rights” had attempt to distinguish it with other similar concepts, especially to elucidate the difference between it and “collective public rights”. Besides, the study will expound the feasibility of introducing the “group rights” into our civil code, and with the subject matter of the previous environmental litigations this study will inspect the practicability, with special emphasis on the merits and demerits of this approach.
We believe that with the detailed elaboration of the “group rights” makes understood the distinct way the shift from individual to group patterns of compensation. Hopefully this attempt will help to makes it feasible for us to apply the laws more accurately and settle the disputes confidently, and help to realize the fairness and justice of jurisdiction.
目  次: 壹、公害救濟問題之法律困境
貳、民法上權利主體之概說
參、法制下權利主體內涵之變化貳、民法上權利主體之概說
肆、非自然人權利與權利主體概說
伍、公害損賠事件上群體權利主體之建構
陸、結論
相關法條:
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相關論著:
邱玟惠,群體權利主體思維之初探-由公害損害賠償之因果關係證明難題談起,法學叢刊,第 67 卷 第 2 期,1-40 頁,2022年04月。
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