法學期刊
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論著名稱:
論美國刑事司法體系之預防性羈押制度(Preventive Detention under the Federal Bail Reform Act 1984 in the U.S. Criminal Justice System)
文獻引用
編著譯者: 王勁力
出版日期: 2007.01
刊登出處: 台灣/興國學報第 7 期/119-135 頁
頁  數: 19 點閱次數: 288
下載點數: 76 點 銷售明細: 權利金查詢 變更售價
授 權 者: 王勁力
關 鍵 詞: 無罪推定原則保釋羈押預防性羈押正當法律程序原則利益衡量法則不被許可的刑罰被容許的行政規制未來的危險性
中文摘要: 當今美國刑事司法體系中,對於刑事被告審判前的保釋或羈押裁定之規範與其程序的進行是依據 1984 年聯邦保釋改革法所架構的體系運作。其中預防性羈押,此種為保護社區之安全針對個別刑事被告之未來危險性來做成羈押之裁定,用以監禁拘禁特定的刑事被告的機制,產生許多批評與質疑。但美國聯邦最高法院認為預防性羈押不是對被裁定羈押的被告所實施的一種不被容許的懲罰,而係為一種被容許的行政規則,同時該法案亦提供一定的程序保障,亦即是支持一九八四聯邦保釋改革法符合憲法規範。本文針對此制度相關之合憲性議題與其相關刑事政策議題逐一檢證與討論,並指出美國刑事司法實務運作上所面臨之問題。
英文關鍵詞: presumption of innocencebaildetentiondue process of lawbalancing interestsimpermissible punishmentpermissible regulationfuture dangerousness
英文摘要: In the current United States criminal justice system, determining criminal defendant pending trial to be bailed out or detained is under the mechanism from the Federal Bail Reform Act of 1984. It is obvious that preventive pretrial detention decisions occur at a critical balancing point between government power and individual rights. The Bail Reform Act 1984 allows federal courts to detain an arrestee pending trial if the government demonstrates by clear and convincing evidence after an adversarial hearing that no release conditions will reasonably assure the safety of the community. The Supreme Court held that pretrial detention based solely on the ground of dangerousness does not violate either due process or the Eighth Amendment because it is merely a regulatory measure whose goal of preventing danger to the community can outweigh an individual's liberty interest. Critics of preventive pretrial detention claim that anticipatory confinement runs contrary to the presumption of innocence and the principle of limited government authority over individuals. The purpose of this article is to discuss the constitutional considerations for this preventive pretrial detention and major policy debate arguments and several practical problems for enforcing such preventive pretrial detention scheme based on the judicial prediction of dangerousness.
目  次: 壹、前言
貳、聯邦保釋法規之沿革與一九八四年聯邦保釋改革法(Bail Reform Act of 1984)之簡介
一、聯邦保釋法相關規範之立法沿革
二、預防性羈押制度的立法與社會背景說明
三、一九八四年聯邦保釋改革法中保釋與羈押之簡介
參、聯邦刑事司法體系中羈押之程序與預防性籍押之裁定
一、羈押聽證(Detention Hearing)
二、危險及潛逃之虞的可反證之推定(Rebuttable Presumptions of Dangerousness and Risk of Flight)
三、羈押或保釋裁定之審查(Review)與上訴(Appeal)
肆、美國法中預防性羈押合憲性與相關議題之討論
一、聯邦刑事訴訟程序中保釋與羈押規範相關合憲性之討論
二、預防性羈押相關合憲性之討論
三、預防性羈押所產生相關刑事政策與實務運作議題之討論
伍、結語
相關法條:
相關判解:
相關函釋:
相關論著:
王勁力,論美國刑事司法體系之預防性羈押制度,興國學報,第 7 期,119-135 頁,2007年01月。
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