法學期刊
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論著名稱:
私人保險保費之前男女平等?從德國法觀點評析歐洲法院 Test-Achats ASBL 案判決(Unisex Pricing in Private Insurance?-An Analysis of the ECJ Test-Achats ASBL Judgment from the Perspective of German Law)
文獻引用
編著譯者: 陳靜慧
出版日期: 2015.12
刊登出處: 台灣/歐美研究第 45 卷 第 4 期/571-618 頁
頁  數: 30 點閱次數: 146
下載點數: 120 點 銷售明細: 權利金查詢 變更售價
授 權 者: 陳靜慧
關 鍵 詞: 性別中立定價禁止性別歧視原則統計性歧視刻板印象契約自由
中文摘要: 歐體 2004/113/EG 平等待遇指令第 5 條第 2 項原規定會員國在能提出最新的保險精算數據為依據的情況下,例外允許男女差別保險費率得繼續存在。歐洲法院於 Test-Achats ASBL 案,宣告前開允許男女差別保費之例外條款因牴觸歐盟法而失效。本文從性別統計性歧視之容許性著手,分析究竟歐洲法院要求各保險公司必須統一男女保險費率的裁判見解,是否與男女平等原則之意旨相符。其次,禁止私人保險採取男女差別保險費率,限制了私人保險公司的契約自由,本文嘗試就禁止性別歧視原則適用於私法領域之界限提出看法。
英文關鍵詞: unisex pricingprohibition of sex discriminationstatis-tical discriminationstereotypefreedom of contract
英文摘要: The purpose of this paper is to analyze the 2011 decision of the European Court of Justice in Test-Achats ASBL. The ECJ ruled that the different premiums based purely on the grounds of gender were incompatible with the unisex rule, which is the purpose of the Di-rective 2004/113/EC in the insurance field and therefore, with the EU Charter of Fundamental Rights. The core issue is - Could insurers use sex as a determining risk factor to justify differences in individuals' premiums? Gender is commonly used as a determining risk-rating factor for certain insurance products because there is statistical data to back it up. This article thus aims to examine the discrimination dis-putes caused by different premiums for men and women in light of the boundary of statistical discrimination on the grounds of sex. Ac-cording to the ECJ's judgment, from 21 December 2012, insurance companies in the EU are no longer allowed to charge different prices based on a person's sex. This restricts private company's freedom of contract. The article hence goes on to discuss the relationship between prohibition of sex discrimination and the principle of freedom of contract.
目  次: 壹、前言
貳、判決摘要
  一、案件事實與相關法律規定
  二、歐洲法院判決見解
  三、歐洲法院判決有待釐清之點
  四、概念釐清:「一般平等原則」、「男女平等待遇原則」與「禁止性別歧視原則」
參、禁止性別歧視原則與私法自治衝突關係之調和
  一、不能以性別區別保險費率主要受衝擊者為私人保險業者
  二、歐盟法上禁止歧視原則在私法關係中之效力
  三、系爭指令於私法關係之適用範圍
肆、以性別為保費差別定價是否有違禁止性別歧視原則
  一、男女保費差別定價涉及統計性歧視
  二、統計性歧視在歐盟法體系的定性與界限
  三、性別差別待遇在歐盟法上正當化可能性
  四、受本案統計性性別歧視衝擊利益之分析
伍、結語
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相關論著:
陳靜慧,私人保險保費之前男女平等?從德國法觀點評析歐洲法院 Test-Achats ASBL 案判決,歐美研究,第 45 卷 第 4 期,571-618 頁,2015年12月。
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