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論著名稱:
以生父認領推翻婚生推定:比較法上的觀察(Rebuttal of Paternity Presumption through the Recognition by Biological Father: A Comparative Law Observation)
文獻引用
編著譯者: 林易典
出版日期: 2023.09
刊登出處: 台灣/國立臺灣大學法學論叢第 52 卷 第 3 期/741-827 頁
頁  數: 86 點閱次數: 343
下載點數: 344 點 銷售明細: 權利金查詢 變更售價
授 權 者: 國立臺灣大學法律學院
關 鍵 詞: 婚生推定父子關係認領推翻權婚生否認之訴否認權真正生父血緣連繫
中文摘要: 基於婚生推定之規範而發生之法律上父子關係如不具血緣連繫時,除透過婚生否認之訴來加以推翻外,自 1970 年代中期起,比較法上並陸續發展出亦得透過認領來推翻的機制。此一機制結合認領與否認之訴的功能,經由真正生父與同意權人間合意的當事人意思自主,而賦予真正生父推翻既存父子關係之權利,且無須向法院起訴。此即可能造成推翻具真實血緣連繫之父子關係的結果,而須再加諸經由行政機關就血緣連繫進行審查與同意認領的要件。經此,相關當事人於此等認領機制下所需付出的時間、心力與金錢,即與於否認之訴機制下無甚差別,分別規範的實益即屬有限,毋寧仍統一置於否認之訴的機制下。
真正生父基於真實血緣連繫,本有推翻既存無血緣連繫之父子關係的人格上利益與需求。故於我國民法第 1063 條第 2 項婚生否認之訴規範中,立法政策上亦須賦予真正生父否認權。惟為確保母之夫與子女的存續保障利益,規範上須就真正生父否認權之發生或行使加諸限制。相較於硬性標準,毋寧以彈性標準作為賦予其否認權之要件,諸如推翻父子關係須不影響子女利益或符合子女利益,而能於適用上更具彈性。此外,亦得兼採於取得夫與子女之同意時,構成賦予真正生父否認權之事由,而能顧及夫與子女的意思。
英文關鍵詞: presumption of paternitypaternityrecognitionrebutting rightaction of contestationcontesting rightbiological fatherconnection of parentage
英文摘要: The presumed marital paternity can be rebutted through action of contestation, if the said paternity does not conform with parentage. The mechanism of rebuttal through recognition in main legislations has been in development since the mid-1970s. This mechanism combines the function of recognition and action of contestation. Therefore, the biological father is conferred the right to rebut existing paternity through the autonomous agreement between biological father and consent holders. All procedures of litigation in the courthouse are not required under the said mechanism. However, exercise of this rebutting right might result in the rebuttal of paternity which conforms with parentage. To avoid this, it is necessary to introduce procedures to examine the parentage by administrative authorities. As such, there is hardly any difference between rebuttal through recognition carrying in administrative authorities and through action of contestation carrying in the courthouse when it comes to the time consumed and financial expenditure caused. In conclusion, the advantages of having these two co-existing regulations are limited. The integration of this rebutting right into the existing mechanism of the action of contestation is required.
Biological father has legitimate interests to rebut existing paternity which does not conform with parentage. Therefore, biological father should de lege ferenda be conferred the contesting right under the action of contestation of Article 1063 paragraph 2 of the Civil Code of Taiwan. In the meanwhile, the exercise of the contesting right by the biological father should also be restricted to ensure the protection of sustained interests of the mother’s husband and the child. Also, it would be more flexible to adopt restrictions such as requiring the rebuttal of paternity not to influence or even conform the interests of the child, rather than to adopt rigid criteria on restriction. In addition, it is also viable to confer contesting right to the biological father while the husband and the child both agree, so that the will of the husband and child is taken into consideration.
目  次: 壹、前言
貳、排除婚生推定與推翻父子關係之規範模式
 一、基於法院裁判之模式
 二、法院訴訟外基於特定人間合意之模式
參、導入以認領推翻父子關係機制的規範需求與疑慮
 一、規範需求與規範正當基礎
 二、規範上之疑慮
肆、比較法上具有推翻既存父子關係效果之認領規範
 一、瑞典親子關係法
 二、挪威親子關係法
 三、芬蘭親子關係法
 四、法國民法
 五、比利時民法
 六、奧地利民法
 七、德國民法
伍、以認領推翻既存父子關係之規範模式與分析
 一、以認領推翻父子關係機制之規範模式分類
 二、規範之發展趨勢分析
陸、我國民法導入以認領推翻父子關係機制與真正生父否認權之可行性評估
 一、導入以認領推翻既存父子關係機制的可能性
 二、仍有直接導入真正生父向法院提起否認之訴的規範需求
 三、真正生父向法院提起否認之訴的否認權之建構
柒、結論
相關法條:
相關判解:
相關函釋:
相關論著:
林易典,以生父認領推翻婚生推定:比較法上的觀察,國立臺灣大學法學論叢,第 52 卷 第 3 期,741-827 頁,2023年09月。
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