法學期刊
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論著名稱:
回顧巴西刑事訴訟制度變革十二載(A Retrospect of the Twelve Years Reform of Criminal Procedure System in Brazil)
文獻引用
編著譯者: 劉國慶
出版日期: 2023.02
刊登出處: 台灣/刑事法雜誌第 67 卷 第 1 期/1-55 頁
頁  數: 55 點閱次數: 76
下載點數: 220 點 銷售明細: 權利金查詢 變更售價
授 權 者: 財團法人刑事法雜誌社基金會
關 鍵 詞: 證據規則正當法律程序公設辯護人預防性羈押陪審制度法律文化修復式司法
中文摘要: 巴西原有刑事訴訟制度存在一定弊端,本國政治日趨走向民主。此外,本國憲法賦予被追訴人諸多基本權利。原有刑事訴訟制度已難以適應社會及民眾需求。是故,2008 年巴西對刑事訴訟制度進行變革完善,主要涉及如下幾個方面:其一,變革偵查體制,建立以員警偵查為主、檢察官為輔多元化的偵查體制。此外,法官對於干預性措施予以司法審查。其二,改革庭審制度。建構或完善多項有益制度,如陪審制度及認罪協商制度等。此外,在司法實踐中採取尚未為立法認可之修復式司法。巴西改革具有積極意義,有助於一定程度上消解往昔痼疾,在人權保障及控制犯罪等方面有所提升。但不足之處亦顯而易見,制度設計上存在不足,如羈押聽證制度仍付之闕如,危害較大,公設辯護制度,需要投入更多的資源方能完善,充分發揮其功能,惠及適格被追訴人;各種賦權在司法實踐中易被規避而流於形式;程序正當性仍需繼續增強。此外,新制度面臨諸多挑戰,如傳統法律文化對正式規則造成衝擊力,使得正式立法規定被規避而流於形式;原有司法思維模式難以適應新制度需要,易出現新瓶裝舊醋,阻滯新制度發力。需要認真對待。
英文關鍵詞: rules of evidencehabeas corpusdue processpublic defenderpreventive detentionjury systemlegal culturerestorative justice
英文摘要: In view of the disadvantages of the original criminal procedure system in Brazil, the domestic politics is becoming more and more democratic. In addition, the constitution amended in 1988 endows the accused with many basic rights. The original criminal procedure system is difficult to meet the needs of the society and the people. Therefore, in 2008, Brazil reformed and perfected the criminal procedure system, which mainly involved the following aspects: First, reforming the investigation system, and establishing a diversified case investigation system with police investigation as the mainstay and prosecutors as the supplement. And the judge gives judicial review to the intervention measures. Second, reforming the court trial system and constructing or improving many beneficial systems, such as jury system, plea bargaining system, habeas corpus system and etc. In addition, restorative justice not recognized by legislation has been working. Brazil's reform is of positive significance, which helps to eliminate the drawbacks to a certain extent, and will improve the protection of human rights and the ability of controlling crimes. However, the shortcomings are also obvious, and there are some shortcomings in the system design, such as the detention hearing system is still lacking, which is harmful, and the public defense system needs to invest more resources in order to improve it, so that it can truly play the function of this system and benefit most qualified defendants; In theory, empowerment is easy to be evaded and become a mere formality in judicial practice; The legitimacy of procedure still needs to be strengthened.In addition, the new system faces many challenges, such as the impact of the traditional“jeito”legal culture on the formal rules, which also makes the formal legislative provisions evade and become a mere formality; The original judicial judicial mindset is difficult to adapt to the needs of the new system, and it is easy to produce new bottles of old vinegar, which hinders the development of the new system. It needs to be taken seriously.
目  次: 壹、前言
貳、變革背景
 一、國內因素
 二、域外因素
參、回顧變革內容
 一、回顧偵查程序變革
 二、回顧審判制度變革
肆、評析
 一、評價
 二、挑戰
 三、省思
伍、結語
相關法條:
相關判解:
相關函釋:
相關論著:
劉國慶,回顧巴西刑事訴訟制度變革十二載,刑事法雜誌,第 67 卷 第 1 期,1-55 頁,2023年02月。
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