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論著名稱:
論侵害名譽權之非財產損害賠償-以請求權人與賠償金額為探討中心(Compensation for Nonpecuniary Damages for Infringement of Reputation: Focusing on Claimant and Quantum of Damages)
文獻引用
研 究 生: 郭穎珍
指導教授: 呂麗慧
出版日期: 2023.03
出版地區: 台灣
校院名稱: 國立高雄大學法律學系碩士
頁  數: 264 (授權者自訂售價) 點閱次數: 842
下載點數: (本篇論著電子全文可分章下載) 銷售明細: 權利金查詢 變更售價
授 權 者: 郭穎珍
關 鍵 詞: 慰撫金財產損害賠償非財產損害賠償金額上限非財產損害賠償基準金額社會汙名標籤不平等人工智慧電子人格通貨膨脹消費者物價指數
中文摘要: 按名譽權係憲法保障重要人格法益之基本人權,其保護範圍鑲嵌於社會評價,因時制宜彈性修正,隨文化變遷、人權保障、價值取捨及認知詮釋而強化或弱化,此乃名譽權值得研究所在。本文第一章「導論」,探索人格權歷史發展脈絡、名譽權於社會影響下之變動,並介紹研究方法與範圍、研究架構。第二章研究「名譽權涵義與保護範圍」,觀察我國實務判決隨文化深層結構改變、價值觀念多元開放,在理應受隱私權保護且涉及私德與公益無關之情感與家庭私生活領域,及源自長久慣行負面刻板印象與偏見歧視所生社會汙名標籤,於名譽權保護範圍有何變動及影響,藉此確立名譽權侵權行為之法律要件部分。第三章研究「非財產損害賠償之特徵功能與意涵」,先釐清損害概念、財產損害及非財產損害分類,再介紹美國學者提出非財產損害五大特徵;復以比較法討論非財產損害賠償之功能,及 12 國對於非財產損害賠償之名稱與意涵,藉此確立名譽權侵權行為之法律效果部分。第四章研究「侵害名譽權非財產損害賠償之請求權人」,以比較法探究一般自然人、服公職自然人、無意識自然人、法人即公司、非法人即合夥與獨資商號,得否為非財產損害賠償請求權人;復以 AI 人工智慧運用實例、未來 AI 於財產法及身分法可能衍生道德法律問題,及歐盟擬制創設 AI 機器人電子人格新興法律議題,作為本文提出 AI 機器人立於請求權人法律地位提起侵害名譽權非財產損害賠償訴訟可能性之基石。第五章研究「侵害名譽權非財產損害賠償制定金額上限或基準金額可能性」,分別探討外國立法例與正反意見爭點,及依通貨膨脹指標及消費者物價指數逐年調整明文規範賠償金額之優缺點,憑此借鏡作為本文提出我國侵害名譽權類型制定非財產損害賠償金額上限或基準金額可能性及妥適性之立論基礎。最後第六章提出「結論」,總結本文研究及觀點。
英文關鍵詞: Solatium、Pecuniary DamagesNoneconomic Damages CapNoneconomic Damages StandardSocial StigmaLabelingInequalityArtificial Intelligence (AI)Electronic PersonhoodInflationConsumer Price Index
英文摘要: The right to reputation is a fundamental human right that the Constitution protects as an important legal interest of personality. The right to reputation has evolved alongside culture and as a result, its scope of protection has adjusted in tandem. Hence, the right to reputation is a prevailing subject worth exploring. Chapter I of this thesis explores the historical developments of the right to personality and reputation while introducing research methods, scope, and chapter layout. Chapter II studies the significance and scope of protection afforded by the right to reputation and examines concepts such as the "sphere of private life" protected under the right to privacy and "social stigma" caused by traditional prejudice and discrimination. Chapter II reviews the changes and effects of Taiwan’s civil judgments on the right to reputation’s scope of protection, thereby establishing the constituent elements for infringement. Chapter III studies the characteristics, functions, and implications of noneconomic damages; it begins with a clarification of the concept of damage and differentiations between economic and noneconomic damages while introducing the five characteristics of noneconomic damages proposed by American scholars. Subsequently, the chapter discusses, through comparison, the function of noneconomic damages and its term and meaning within twelve countries—creating a basis on which this thesis establishes the legal effect of infringement on the right to reputation. Chapter IV studies the claimants of noneconomic damages for infringement of reputation rights and discusses, through comparative law, whether ordinary natural persons, natural persons in public service, unconscious natural persons, legal persons (i.e., corporations), and non-legal persons (including partnerships and sole proprietorships) could be claimants of noneconomic damages. In addition, the chapter examines the practical uses of artificial intelligence (AI) and the future moral and legal issues that the use of AI may derive from property law and identity law in the future. The chapter then reviews emerging legal issues such as the European Union’s newly-created AI electronic personhood, forming the theoretical basis for this thesis: whether an AI robot can be a claimant of noneconomic damage for reputation rights. Chapter V studies the possibility of establishing an upper limit or base amount of noneconomic damage for infringement of reputation rights, and analyzes foreign legislation, positive and negative viewpoints, and advantages and disadvantages of adjusting noneconomic damages according to the Consumer Price Index (CPI); the chapter posits legislative suggestions for Taiwan. Finally, Chapter VI concludes the thesis with a summary of the research and viewpoints.
目  次: 第一章 導論
 第一節 探索人格權歷史發展脈絡
 第二節 探索名譽權於社會影響下之變動
 第三節 研究方法與範圍
 第四節 研究架構
第二章 名譽權涵義與保護範圍
 第一節 名譽權概念
 第二節 私生活領域侵害名譽權
 第三節 社會汙名化標籤侵害名譽權
第三章 非財產損害賠償之特徵功能與意涵
 第一節 損害概念
 第二節 損害分類
 第三節 非財產損害賠償功能
 第四節 各國名稱及意涵
第四章 侵害名譽權非財產損害賠償之請求權人
 第一節 一般自然人
 第二節 服公職自然人
 第三節 無意識自然人
 第四節 法人、合夥、獨資商號
 第五節 AI 機器人電子人格
第五章 侵害名譽權非財產損害賠償制定金額上限或基準金額可能性
 第一節 加拿大
 第二節 澳大利亞聯邦
 第三節 美國
 第四節 大韓民國
 第五節 我國侵害名譽權建立非財產損害賠償金額上限或基準金額可能性
第六章結論
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[114] Zavos, H. (2009). Monetary Damages for Nonmonetary Losses: An Integrated Answer to the Problem of the Meaning, Function, and Calculation of Noneconomic Damages. Loyola of Los Angeles Law Review, 43(1), 193–272.
[115] Zurth, P. (2021). Artificial Creativity? A Case Against Copyright Protection for AI-Generated Works. UCLA Journal of Law & Technology, 25(2), 1–20.
三、歐盟研究報告
[1] European Parliament Committee on Legal Affairs, Draft Report with recommendations to the Commission on Civil Law Rules on Robotics (2015/2103(INL)) (31 May 2016).
[2] European Parliament Committee on Legal Affairs, Report with recommendations to the Commission on Civil Law Rules on Robotics (2015/2103(INL)) (27 Jan. 2017).
[3] European Parliament, Civil Law Rules on Robotics. European Parliament resolution of 16 February 2017 with recommendations to the Commission on Civil Law Rules on Robotics (2015/2103(INL)), Eur. Parl. Doc. P8_TA(2017)0051. (16 Feb. 2017).
四、英文法規
[1] 2022 Florida Statutes. (2022).
[2] 2022 Kansas Statutes. (2022).
[3] Accident Compensation Act 2001 [New Zealand]. (Public Act 2001 No. 49, date of assent 19 Sep. 2001, version as at 30 October 2022).
[4] Alaska Statutes 2021. (2021).
[5] Arizona State Constitution. (2022).
[6] Automated and Electric Vehicles Act 2018 [UK]. (Original version 19 Jul. 2018, revised version 27 May 2022).
[7] Code of Alabama 1975. (1975).
[8] Code of the District of Columbia. (2022).
[9] Colorado Revised Statutes. (Effective as of 3 Mar. 2023).
[10] Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women. (Adopted and opened for signature, ratification and accession by United Nations General Assembly resolution 34/180 of 18 Dec. 1979, entry into force 3 Sep. 1981).
[11] Copyright and Related Rights Act 2000 [Ireland]. (No. 28 of 2000, enacted on 10 Jul. 2000).
[12] Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988 [UK]. (Original version 15 Nov. 1988, revised version 1 Jul. 2022).
[13] Damages (Scotland) Act 2011. (Passed on 3 Mar. 2011, assent on 7 Apr. 2011).
[14] Defamation Order 2006 [Tasmania]. (File last modified 5 Jul. 2017).
[15] Defamation Order 2007 [Tasmania]. (Take effect on 1 Jul. 2007).
[16] Defamation Order 2008 [Tasmania]. (Take effect on 1 Jul. 2008).
[17] Defamation Order 2009 [Tasmania]. (Take effect on 1 Jul. 2009).
[18] Defamation Order 2010 [Tasmania]. (Take effect on 1 Jul. 2010).
[19] Defamation Order 2011 [Tasmania]. (Take effect on 1 Jul. 2011).
[20] Defamation Order 2012 [Tasmania]. (Take effect on 1 Jul. 2012).
[21] Defamation Order 2013 [Tasmania]. (Take effect on 1 Jul. 2013).
[22] Defamation Order 2014 [Tasmania]. (Take effect on 1 Jul. 2014).
[23] Defamation Order 2015 [Tasmania]. (Take effect on 1 Jul. 2015).
[24] Defamation Order 2016 [Tasmania]. (Take effect on 1 Jul. 2016).
[25] Defamation Order 2017 [Tasmania]. (Take effect on 1 Jul. 2017).
[26] Defamation Order 2018 [Tasmania]. (Take effect on 1 Jul. 2018).
[27] Defamation Order 2019 [Tasmania]. (Take effect on 1 Jul. 2019).
[28] Defamation Order 2020 [Tasmania]. (Take effect on 1 Jul. 2020).
[29] Defamation Order 2021 [Tasmania]. (Take effect on 1 Jul. 2021).
[30] Defamation Order 2022 [Tasmania]. (Take effect on 1 Jul. 2022).
[31] European Convention on Human Rights. (Signed at Rome on 4 Nov. 1950).
[32] General Statutes of Connecticut. (2023).
[33] Kansas Bill of Rights. (2016).
[34] Louisiana Civil Code. (2022).
[35] Louisiana Revised Statutes of 1950. (2022).
[36] Mississippi Code. (2022).
[37] New South Wales Defamation Amendment Bill 2020. (Act No. 16 of 2020, assented to 11 Aug. 2020).
[38] New South Wales Defamation Bill 2005. (Act No. 77 of 2005, assented to 26 Oct. 2005).
[39] Official Code of Georgia Annotated. (2022).
[40] Patents Regulations 1991 [Australia]. (Amended and in force on 26 Aug. 2021).
[41] Queensland Defamation (Model Provisions) and Other Legislation Amendment Act 2021. (Act No. 13 of 2021, assented to 24 Jun. 2021).
[42] Queensland Defamation Act 2005. (Act No. 55 of 2005, assented to 18 Nov. 2005).
[43] Rules of Court 2021 [Singapore]. (Amended by S 91/2023, version as at 1 Mar. 2023).
[44] South Australia Defamation Act 2005. (Act No. 50 of 2005, assented to 27 Oct. 2005).
[45] South Australia Defamation (Miscellaneous) Amendment Act 2020. (Act No. 41 of 2020, assented to 26 Nov. 2020).
[46] Tasmania Defamation Act 2005. (Act No. 73 of 2005, assented to 9 Dec. 2005).
[47] Tasmania Defamation Amendment Act 2021. (Act No. 16 of 2021, assented to 12 Nov. 2021).
[48] The Civil Code of the State of California. (Enacted 1872, amended 2022, effective as of 1 Jan. 2023).
[49] The Highway Code [UK]. (Published 1 Oct. 2015, updated 27 Jul. 2022).
[50] The Statutes of the Republic of Singapore Civil Law Act 1909. (Amended by Act 292 15 of 2022, version in force from 1 Aug. 2022).
[51] The Statutes of the Republic of Singapore Defamation Act 1957. (Amended by Act 25 of 2021, version in force from 1 Apr. 2022).
[52] The Statutes of the Republic of Singapore Evidence Act 1893. (Amended by Act 39 of 2022, version in force from 3 Jan. 2023).
[53] United States Code. (2021).
[54] United State Constitution First Amendment. (Ratified 15 Dec. 1791).
[55] United State Constitution Seventh Amendment. (Ratified 15 Dec. 1791).
[56] United State Constitution 13th Amendment. (Ratified 6 Dec. 1865).
[57] United State Constitution 14th Amendment. (Ratified 9 Jul. 1868).
[58] Universal Declaration of Human Rights. (16 Dec. 1948).
[59] Vehicle Code [California]. (Enacted 1959, amended 2022, effective as of 1 Jan. 2023).
[60] Victoria Defamation Act 2005. (Act No. 75 of 2005, assented to 2 Nov. 2005).
[61] Victoria Defamation Act 2005 – Authorised Version No. 5. (Act No. 75 of 2005, assented to 1 Jul. 2021).
[62] Western Australia Defamation Act 2005. (Act No. 44 of 2005, assented to 19 Dec. 2005).
五、司法判決
(一)美國法院判決
[1] Alexander v. Alexander, 42 Ohio Misc. 2d 30 (1988).
[2] American Dental Ass'n v. Martin, 984 F.2d 823 (7th Cir. 1993).
[3] Anderson v. Texaco, Inc., 797 F. Supp. 531 (E.D. La. 1992).
[4] Atlanta Oculoplastic Surgery, P.C. v. Nestlehutt, 286 Ga. 731 (Ga. 2010). 293
[5] Bailets v. Pa. Tpk. Comm'n, 181 A.3d 324 (Pa. 2018).
[6] Ballengee v. CBS Broad., Inc., 331 F. Supp. 3d 533 (S.D.W. Va. 2018).
[7] Bearbower v. Merry, 266 N.W.2d 128 (Iowa 1978).
[8] Beech Aircraft Corp. v. EDO Corp., 990 F.2d 1237 (Fed. Cir. 1993).
[9] Bennett v. Lembo, 145 N.H. 276 (N.H. 2000).
[10] Blye v. California Supreme Court, 3:11-cv-5046-DWM (N.D. Cal. Feb. 14, 2013).
[11] Board of Regents v. Roth, 408 U.S. 564 (1972).
[12] Borkowski v. Kate, 599 F.3d 57 (1st Cir. 2010).
[13] Brown & Williamson Tobacco Corp. v. Jacobson, 713 F.2d 262 (7th Cir. 1983).
[14] Brown & Williamson Tobacco Corp. v. Jacobson, 827 F.2d 1119 (7th Cir. 1987).
[15] Carello v. Aurora Policemen Credit Union, 930 F.3d 830 (7th Cir. 2019).
[16] Cohane v. National Collegiate Athletic Ass'n, 612 F. App'x 41 (2d Cir. 2015).
[17] Colvin v. Syrian Arab Republic, 363 F. Supp. 3d 141 (D.D.C. 2019).
[18] Cooper Industries v. Leatherman Tool Group, 532 U.S. 424 (2001).
[19] Day v. City of Fontana, 25 Cal. 4th 268 (Cal. 2001).
[20] Diaz v. Eli Lilly & Co., 364 Mass. 153 (Mass. 1973).
[21] Dun & Bradstreet, Inc. v. Greenmoss Builders, Inc., 472 U.S. 749 (1985).
[22] Elston v. Valley Electric Membership Corp., 381 So. 2d 554 (La. Ct. App. 1980).
[23] Exxon Shipping Co. v. Baker, 554 U.S. 471 (2008).
[24] Finnish Temperance Society Sovittaja v. Finnish Socialistic Publishing Co., 238 Mass. 345 (Mass. 1921).
[25] Fischer v. Johns-Manville Corp., 103 N.J. 643 (N.J. 1986).
[26] Fundermann v. Mickelson, 304 N.W.2d 790 (Iowa 1981).
[27] Godfrey v. State, 898 N.W.2d 844 (Iowa 2017).
[28] Gomez v. Perez, 409 U.S. 535 (1973).
[29] Goss v. Lopez, 419 U.S. 565 (1975).
[30] Hilburn v. Enerpipe Ltd., 442 P.3d 509 (Kan. 2019).
[31] Hitaffer v. Argonne Co., 183 F.2d 811 (D.C. Cir. 1950).
[32] Hitt v. Connell, 301 F.3d 240 (5th Cir. 2002).
[33] Hodges v. Johnson, 417 S.W.2d 685 (Mo. Ct. App. 1967).
[34] Horizon Health Corp. v. Acadia Healthcare Co., 520 S.W.3d 848 (Tex. 2017).
[35] Housh v. Peth, 165 Ohio St. 35 (Ohio 1956).
[36] Humphries v. County of Los Angeles, 554 F.3d 1170 (9th Cir. 2009).
[37] Innovative Block of South Texas, Ltd. v. Valley Builders Supply, Inc., 603 S.W.3d 409 (Tex. 2020).
[38] Jackson v. Playboy Enterprises, Inc., 574 F. Supp. 10 (S.D. Ohio 1983).
[39] Jacobs v. Pennsylvania Department of Correctons, Case No. 04-1366 (W.D. Pa. Jun. 7, 2011).
[40] Johnson v. Howard, 24 F. App'x 480 (6th Cir. 2001).
[41] Kim v. Democratic People's Republic of Korea, 87 F. Supp. 3d 286 (D.D.C. 2015).
[42] Kloster v. Hancock (In re Rockhill Pain Specialists, P.A.), 55 Kan. App. 2d 161 (Kan. Ct. App. 2017).
[43] Kritenbrink v. Crawford, 457 F. Supp. 2d 1139 (D. Nev. 2006).
[44] Latta v. Otter, 771 F.3d 456 (9th Cir. 2014).
[45] Learmonth v. Sears, Roebuck & Co., 710 F.3d 249 (5th Cir. 2013).
[46] Los Angeles Fire Police Protective v. Rodgers, 7 Cal.App.3d 419 (Cal. Ct. App.1970).
[47] Martin v. Thompson, 145 F. App'x 613 (9th Cir. 2005).
[48] McAllister v. Secretary of Health and Human Services, 70 F.3d 1240 (Fed. Cir. 1995).
[49] McCullen v. Coakley, 573 U.S. 464 (2014).
[50] McDougald v. Garber, 73 N.Y.2d 246 (N.Y. 1989).
[51] Menkowitz v. Peerless Publications, 211 A.3d 797 (Pa. 2019).
[52] Miller v. California, 355 F.3d 1172 (9th Cir. 2004).
[53] Montgomery v. Stephan, 359 Mich. 33 (Mich. 1960).
[54] Motts v. M/V Green Wave, 210 F.3d 565 (5th Cir. 2000).
[55] Murphy v. Gilman, 551 F. Supp. 2d 677 (W.D. Mich. 2008).
[56] Neal v. Shimoda, 131 F.3d 818 (9th Cir. 1997).
[57] New York Times Co. v. Sullivan, 273 Ala. 656 (Ala. 1962).
[58] New York Times Co. v. Sullivan, 376 U.S. 254 (1964).
[59] Noble v. Burrell, 646 So. 2d 293 (Fla. Dist. Ct. App. 1994).
[60] North Broward Hospital District v. Kalitan, 174 So. 3d 403 (Fla. Dist. Ct. App. 2015).
[61] North Broward Hospital District v. Kalitan, 219 So. 3d 49 (Fla. 2017).
[62] Pike v. Dilling, 48 Me. 539 (1861).
[63] Plessy v. Ferguson, 163 U.S. 537 (1896).
[64] Pruitt v. Lindsey, 407 S.E.2d 750 (Ga. 1991).
[65] Reed v. Town of Gilbert, 576 U.S. 155 (2015).
[66] Romano v. Blue Cross Blue Shield of Michigan, 2:21-cv-12966 (E.D. Mich. Jan. 3, 2022).
[67] Samsel v. Wheeler Transport Services, Inc., 246 Kan. 336 (Kan. 1990).
[68] Seidman v. Insurance Commissioner, 532 A.2d 917 (Pa. Cmmw. Ct. 1987).
[69] Sexton v. Sewell, 351 Ga. App. 273 (Ga. Ct. App. 2019).
[70] Sherrod v. Berry, 629 F. Supp. 159 (N.D. Ill. 1985).
[71] Sindi v. El-Moslimany, 896 F.3d 1 (1st Cir. 2018).
[72] Smith v. Mitchell, 202 S.W.2d 979 (Tenn. 1947).
[73] Snowden v. Adams, 814 F. Supp. 2d 854 (C.D. Ill. 2011).
[74] Spitzke v. United States, 914 F.2d 263 (9th Cir. 1990).
[75] State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins. Co. v. Campbell, 538 U.S. 408 (2003).
[76] State v. Price-Williams, 973 N.W.2d 556 (Iowa 2022).
[77] Still by Erlandson v. Baptist Hosp, 755 S.W.2d 807 (Tenn. Ct. App. 1988).
[78] Surnow v. Buddemeyer, 380 F. Supp. 3d 1058 (D. Haw. 2019).
[79] Sustin v. Fee, 69 Ohio St. 2d 143 (Ohio 1982).
[80] Thaler v. Hirshfeld, 558 F. Supp. 3d 238 (E.D. Va. 2021).
[81] Thuneibat v. Syrian Arab Republic, 167 F. Supp. 3d 22 (D.D.C. 2016).
[82] Times Film Corp. v. City of Chicago, 365 U.S. 43 (1961).
[83] Townsend v. Vallas, 256 F.3d 661 (7th Cir. 2001).
[84] United States v. Alvarez, 567 U.S. 709 (2012).
[85] United States v. Beam, 506 F. Supp. 3d 1192 (N.D. Ala. 2020).
[86] United States v. Dickerson, No. 3:10-cr-227 (JAM) (D. Conn. Aug. 21, 2020).
[87] United States v. Mohamud, Criminal Case No. 3:10-CR-00475-KI (D. Or. Jan. 4, 2013).
[88] University of Utah v. Max-Planck-Gesellschaft Zur Forderung Der Wissenschaften E.V., 734 F.3d 1315 (Fed. Cir. 2013).
[89] Vander Zee v. Reno, 73 F.3d 1365 (5th Cir. 1996).
[90] Weber v. Aetna Casualty Surety Co., 406 U.S. 164 (1972).
[91] Wilson v. Sanders, 447 P.3d 1240 (Utah Ct. App. 2019).
[92] Wisconsin v. Constantineau, 400 U.S. 433 (1971).
[93] Wyman v. Wallace, 91 Wn. 2d 317 (Wash. 1979).
(二)歐洲人權法院判決
[1] Niemietz v. Germany, App. No. 13710/88, Eur. Ct. H.R. (16 Dec. 1992).
[2] Von Hannover v. Germany (No. 2), App. Nos. 40660/08 & 60641/08, Eur. Ct. H.R. (7 Feb. 2012).
(三)英國法院判決
[1] Cox v. Ergo Versicherung, [2014] UKSC 22 (02 Apr. 2014).
[2] Dryden v. Johnson Matthey Plc, [2018] UKSC 18 (21 Mar. 2018).
[3] Dunhill v. Burgin, [2014] UKSC 18 (12 Mar. 2014).
[4] Edwards v. Hugh James Ford Simey Solicitors, [2019] UKSC 54 (20 Nov. 2019).
[5] Independent Assessor v. O'Brien & Ors, [2004] EWCA Civ 1035 (29 Jul. 2004).
[6] Lachaux v. Independent Print Ltd, [2019] UKSC 27 (12 Jun. 2019).
[7] Lumba v. Secretary of State for the Home Department, [2011] UKSC 12 (23 Mar. 2011).
[8] Paterson, Widow and Children v. Wallace & Company, [1854] UKHL 1_Macqueen_748 (6 Jul. 1854).
(四)蘇格蘭法院判決
[1] A against C And B against C, [2018] ScotCS CSOH_65 (15 Jun. 2018).
[2] A against Glasgow City Council, [2021] ScotCS CSOH_102 (13 Oct. 2021).
[3] Alexander Mair v. James Shand, [1778] Mor 7421 (14 Jul. 1778).
[4] Buxton v. Direct Line Insurance Plc, [2010] ScotSC 27 (29 Dec. 2010).
[5] Broo v. John Ritchie & Co., [1904] SLR 41_723 (7 Jul. 1904).
[6] Evans v. Stool and Others (Stool's Executors), [1885] SLR 22_872 (15 Jul. 1885).
[7] Transco Plc v. Her Majesty's Advocate, [2005] HCJAC 1 (14 Jan. 2005).
[8] Tullis v. Glenday, [1831] CA 13_698 (17 Jul. 1831).
(五)加拿大法院判決
[1] Lindal v. Lindal, [1981] 2 SCR 629 (17 Dec. 1981).
[2] Snyder v. Montreal Gazette Ltd., [1988] 1 SCR 494 (24 Mar. 1988).
[3] Wilhelmson v. Dumma, 2017 BCSC 616 (13 Apr. 2017).
(六)澳大利亞法院判決
[1] Commissioner of Patents v. Thaler, [2022] FCAFC 62 (13 Apr. 2022).
[2] Hayson v. The Age Company Pty Ltd (No. 2), [2020] FCA 361 (19 Mar. 2020).
[3] Murphy v. Nationwide News Pty Ltd, [2021] FCA 381 (19 Apr. 2021).
[4] Nationwide News Pty Limited v. Rush, [2020] FCAFC 115 (2 Jul. 2020).
[5] Oliver v. Nine Network Australia Pty Ltd, [2019] FCA 583 (26 Apr. 2019).
[6] Thaler v. Commissioner of Patents, [2021] FCA 879 (30 Jul. 2021).
[7] Webster v. Brewer (No. 3), [2020] FCA 1343 (22 Sep. 2020).
(七)紐西蘭法院判決
[1] ACC v. Algie & Ors, [2016] NZCA 120 (13 Apr. 2016).
[2] AZ v. Accident Compensation Corporation, [2021] NZHC 2752 (14 Oct. 2021).
[3] Bates v Auckland Council, [2022] NZHC 336 (1 Mar. 2022).
[4] Bhargav v. First Trust Limited, [2022] NZHC 1710 (20 Jul. 2022).
[5] Cato v. Manaia Media Limited, [2022] NZHC 644 (31 Mar. 2022).
[6] Johns v Hamilton City Council, [2022] NZHC 379 (7 Mar. 2022).
[7] Mao & OR v. Quotable Value LTD & OR, [2022] NZHC 1680 (14 Jul. 2022).
[8] Merchant Finance LTD v. XU, [2021] NZHC 3589 (21 Dec. 2021).
[9] Spring v.Williams, [2022] NZHC 2165 (29 Aug. 2022).
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[40] Ward, N. (2020). Defamation Amendment Bill 2020 – Second Reading Speech.Parliament of New South Wales. https://www.parliament.nsw.gov.au/Hansard/Pages/HansardResult.aspx#/docid/HA NSARD-1820781676-82501 (last visited 25 Feb. 2023)
[41] Mason, S., Posnack, D., Arn, P., Para, W., Hacking, S. A., Mueller, M., Guaneri, J., & Greene, J. (2022). Method and system for using artificial intelligence and machine learning to create optimal treatment plans based on monetary value amount generated and/or patient outcome. PatentsView. https://datatool.patentsview.org/#detail/patent/11295848 (last visited 8 Mar. 2023)
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[44] Minister for Justice of Tasmania. (2008). Defamation Order 2008. Tasmanian Legislation. https://www.legislation.tas.gov.au/view/whole/html/inforce/current/sr-2008-071 (last visited 26 Feb. 2023)
[45] Minister for Justice of Tasmania. (2009). Defamation Order 2009. Tasmanian Legislation. https://www.legislation.tas.gov.au/view/whole/html/inforce/current/sr-2009-054 (last visited 26 Feb. 2023)[46] Minister for Justice of Tasmania. (2010). Defamation Order 2010. Tasmanian Legislation. https://www.legislation.tas.gov.au/view/whole/html/inforce/current/sr-2010-059 (last visited 26 Feb. 2023)
[47] Minister for Justice of Tasmania. (2011). Defamation Order 2011. Tasmanian Legislation. https://www.legislation.tas.gov.au/view/whole/html/inforce/current/sr-2011-061 (last visited 26 Feb. 2023)
[48] Minister for Justice of Tasmania. (2012). Defamation Order 2012. Tasmanian Legislation.
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[49] Minister for Justice of Tasmania. (2013). Defamation Order 2013. Tasmanian Legislation. https://www.legislation.tas.gov.au/view/whole/html/inforce/current/sr-2013-031 (last visited 26 Feb. 2023)
[50] Minister for Justice of Tasmania. (2014). Defamation Order 2014. Tasmanian Legislation. https://www.legislation.tas.gov.au/view/whole/html/inforce/current/sr-2014-059 (last visited 26 Feb. 2023)
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[52] Minister for Justice of Tasmania. (2016). Defamation Order 2016. Tasmanian Legislation. https://www.legislation.tas.gov.au/view/whole/html/inforce/current/sr-2016-034 (last visited 26 Feb. 2023)
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[54] Minister for Justice of Tasmania. (2018). Defamation Order 2018. Tasmanian Legislation. https://www.legislation.tas.gov.au/view/whole/html/inforce/current/sr-2018-018 (last visited 26 Feb. 2023)
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[62] Oireachtas. (2000). Copyright and Related Rights Act 2000. Electronic Irish Statute Book. https://www.irishstatutebook.ie/eli/2000/act/28 (last visited 8 Mar. 2023) [63] Oxford Advanced American Dictionary (2023). privacy noun. Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. https://www.oxfordlearnersdictionaries.com/definition/american_english/privacy
[64] Oxford Advanced American Dictionary (2023). private adjective. Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. https://www.oxfordlearnersdictionaries.com/definition/american_english/private_1 [65] PatentsView. (2023). Patent Search. https://patentsview.org (last visited 8 Mar. 2023)
[66] Parliament of Australia. (2021). Patents Regulations 1991. Australian Government Federal Register of Legislation. https://www.legislation.gov.au/Details/F2021C00881 (last visited 8 Mar. 2023)
[67] Parliament of Queensland Legislation. (2005). Queensland Defamation Act 2005. Queensland Legislation.https://www.legislation.qld.gov.au/view/html/asmade/act-2005-055 (last visited 25 Feb. 2023)
[68] Parliament of Queensland Legislation. (2021). Queensland Defamation (Model Provisions) and Other Legislation Amendment Act 2021. Queensland Legislation. https://www.legislation.qld.gov.au/view/html/asmade/act-2021-013 (last visited 26 Feb. 2023)
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[72] Parliament of South Australia. (2005). South Australia Defamation Act 2005. South Australian Legislation. https://www.legislation.sa.gov.au/lz?path=/c/a/defamation%20act%202005 (last visited 26 Feb. 2023)
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[77] Renard, G. (2021). Natural transfer of knowledge between human and artificial intelligence. PatentsView. https://datatool.patentsview.org/#detail/patent/10922491 (last visited 8 Mar. 2023)
[78] Rules Committee. (2023). Rules of Court 2021. Singapore Statutes Online.https://sso.agc.gov.sg/SL/SCJA1969-S914-2021 (last visited 7 Mar. 2023)
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[80] Scottish Parliament. (2011). Damages (Scotland) Act 2011. Legislation.gov.uk.https://www.legislation.gov.uk/asp/2011/7 (last visited 4 Mar. 2023)
[81] Time to Change. (2023). Our impact.https://www.time-to-change.org.uk/about-us/our-impact (last visited 27 Feb. 2023)
[82] UK Parliament. (2022). Automated and Electric Vehicles Act 2018. Legislation.gov.uk. https://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/2018/18 (last visited 8 Mar. 2023)
[83] UK Parliament. (2022). Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988.Legislation.gov.uk. https://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/1988/48 (last visited 8 Mar. 2023)
[84] UK Parliament. (2022). The Highway Code. GOV.UK.https://www.gov.uk/guidance/the-highway-code/introduction#self-driving-vehicles(last visited 8 Mar. 2023)
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[88] United Nations General Assembly. (1979). Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women New York, 18 December 1979. United Nations. https://www.ohchr.org/en/instruments-mechanisms/instruments/convention-elimina tion-all-forms-discrimination-against-women (last visited 2 Mar. 2023)
[89] United Nations General Assembly. (2023). Status of Ratification Interactive Dashboard – Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women. United Nations. https://indicators.ohchr.org (last visited 2 Mar. 2023)
[90] US Congress. (1791). First Amendment: Freedom of Religion, Speech, Press, Assembly, and Petition. National Constitution Center. https://constitutioncenter.org/the-constitution/amendments/amendment-i (last visited 27 Feb. 2023)[91] US Congress. (1791). Seventh Amendment: Jury Trial in Civil Lawsuits. National Constitution Center. https://constitutioncenter.org/the-constitution/amendments/amendment-vii (last visited 27 Feb. 2023)
[92] US Congress. (1865). 13th Amendment: Abolition of Slavery. National Constitution Center. https://constitutioncenter.org/the-constitution/amendments/amendment-xiii (last visited 27 Feb. 2023)
[93] US Congress. (1868). 14th Amendment: Citizenship Rights, Equal Protection, Apportionment, Civil War. National Constitution Center. https://constitutioncenter.org/the-constitution/amendments/amendment-xiv (last visited 27 Feb. 2023)[94] U.S. National Archives and Records Administration. (2022). 13th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution: Abolition of Slavery (1865). National Archives. https://www.archives.gov/milestone-documents/13th-amendment (last visited 27 Feb. 2023)[95] U.S. National Archives and Records Administration. (2023). Advertisement, “Heed Their Rising Voices”. National Archives. https://www.archives.gov/exhibits/documented-rights/exhibit/section4/detail/heed-r ising-voices-transcript.html (last visited 27 Feb. 2023)
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[106] World Health Organization. (2023). WHO Coronavirus (COVID-19) Dashboard.https://covid19.who.int (last visited 27 Feb. 2023)
七、網站
[1] Alabama Legislature. https://alison.legislature.state.al.us
[2] Alaska State Legislature. https://akleg.gov
[3] Australian Government. https://www.australia.gov.au
[4] Australian Government Federal Register of Legislation. https://www.legislation.gov.au
[5] Arizona State Legislature. https://www.azleg.gov
[6] California Legislative Information. https://leginfo.legislature.ca.gov
[7] Colorado General Assembly. https://leg.colorado.gov
[8] Council of the District of Columbia. https://dccouncil.gov
[9] European Parliament. https://www.europarl.europa.eu/portal/en
[10] Florida Legislature. http://www.leg.state.fl.us
[11] GOV.UK. https://www.gov.uk
[12] Kansas Legislature. http://www.kslegislature.org
[13] Legislation.gov.uk. https://www.legislation.gov.uk
[14] Louisiana State Legislature. https://legis.la.gov
[15] National Archives. https://www.archives.gov
[16] National Constitution Center. https://constitutioncenter.org
[17] New Zealand Legislation. https://www.legislation.govt.nz
[18] Parliament of New South Wales. https://www.parliament.nsw.gov.au
[19] PatentsView. www.patentsview.org
[20] Queensland Legislation. https://www.legislation.qld.gov.au
[21] Singapore Courts. https://www.judiciary.gov.sg
[22] Singapore Statutes Online. https://sso.agc.gov.sg
[23] South Australian Legislation. https://www.legislation.sa.gov.au
[24] Tasmanian Legislation. https://www.legislation.tas.gov.au
[25] The Commonwealth. https://thecommonwealth.org
[26] The New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com
[27] United Nations. https://www.un.org/en
[28] United Nations Digital Library. https://digitallibrary.un.org/?ln=en
[29] United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO). https://www.uspto.gov
[30] Victorian Legislation. https://www.legislation.vic.gov.au
[31] Western Australian Legislation. https://www.legislation.wa.gov.au
[32] World Health Organization. https://www.who.int
參、德文文獻
一、專書
[1] Brötz, D. (2023). Menschmaschinen/Maschinenmenschen in der Literatur: Golems, Roboter, Androiden und Cyborgs als das dritte Geschlecht. Innsbruck University Press.
二、德文法規
[1] Allgemeines bürgerliches Gesetzbuch – ABGB. (Inkrafttretensdatum 1 Januar 1812, Zuletzt aktualisiert am 8 April 2015).
[2] Allgemeines Sozialversicherungsgesetz – ASVG. (Inkrafttretensdatum 1 Januar 2014, Zuletzt aktualisiert am 8 April 2015).
[3] Ä rztegesetz 1998 – Ä rzteG 1998. (Inkrafttretensdatum 1 Januar 2006, Zuletzt aktualisiert am 15 September 2022).
[4] Bauern-Sozialversicherungsgesetz– BSVG. (Inkrafttretensdatum 1 Januar 2005, Zuletzt aktualisiert am 24 April 2015).
[5] Beamten-Kranken- und Unfallversicherungsgesetz – B-KUVG. (Inkrafttretensdatum 1 Januar 2005, Zuletzt aktualisiert am 11 September 2015).
[6] Bundespflegegeldgesetz – BPGG. (Inkrafttretensdatum 1 Juli 2018, Zuletzt aktualisiert am 21 August 2018).
[7] Bürgerliches Gesetzbuch – BGM. (In der Fassung der Bekanntmachung vom 2. Januar 2002, das zuletzt durch Artikel 24 des Gesetzes vom 22. Februar 2023 geändert worden ist).
[8] Eisenbahn- und Kraftfahrzeughaftpflichtgesetz – EKHG. (Inkrafttretensdatum 1 März 1968, Zuletzt aktualisiert am 6 März 2017).
[9] Gehaltsgesetz 1956 – GehG. (Inkrafttretensdatum 24 Dezember 2020, Zuletzt aktualisiert am 18 Januar 2021).
[10] Gesetz über die Haftung für fehlerhafte Produkte – Produkthaftungsgesetz –ProdHaftG. (vom 15. Dezember 1989, das zuletzt durch Artikel 5 des Gesetzes vom 17. Juli 2017 geändert worden ist).
[11] Gesetz zur Regelung der Gentechnik – Gentechnikgesetz – GenTG. (In der Fassung der Bekanntmachung vom 16. Dezember 1993 , das zuletzt durch Artikel 8 Absatz 7 des Gesetzes vom 27. September 2021 geändert worden ist).
[12] Gewerbliches Sozialversicherungsgesetz – GSVG. (Inkrafttretensdatum 1 Januar2005, Zuletzt aktualisiert am 14 September 2015).
[13] Kriegsopferversorgungsgesetz 1957. (Inkrafttretensdatum 1 Januar 2002, Zuletzt aktualisiert am 20 Januar 2015).
[14] Luftverkehrsgesetz – LuftVG. (In der Fassung der Bekanntmachung vom 10. Mai 2007, das zuletzt durch Artikel 131 des Gesetzes vom 10. August 2021 geändert worden ist).
[15] Militärbefugnisgesetz – MBG. (Inkrafttretensdatum 1 Dezember 2019, Zuletzt aktualisiert am 9 Februar 2021).
[16] Notarversorgungsgesetz – NVG 2020. (Inkrafttretensdatum 1 Januar 2020, Zuletzt aktualisiert am 9 Januar 2019).
[17] Polizeibefugnis-Entschädigungsgesetz. (Inkrafttretensdatum 1 Juli 1996, Zuletzt aktualisiert am 17 November 2022).
[18] Strafvollzugsgesetz. (Inkrafttretensdatum 1 Januar 1970, Zuletzt aktualisiert am 27 Januar 2015).
[19] Straßenverkehrsgesetz – StVG. (In der Fassung der Bekanntmachung vom 5. März 2003, das zuletzt durch Artikel 2 Absatz 32 des Gesetzes vom 20. Dezember 2022 geändert worden ist).
[20] Schweizerisches Zivilgesetzbuch. (Vom 10. Dezember 1907).
三、網頁資料
[1] Allgemeines bürgerliches Gesetzbuch – ABGB. (2015). § 1325 – Insbesondere bey 315 Verletzungen an dem Körper. Rechtsinformationssystem des Bundes.https://www.ris.bka.gv.at/eli/jgs/1811/946/P1325/NOR12019069 (last visited 22 Feb. 2023)
[2] Allgemeines Sozialversicherungsgesetz – ASVG. (2015). § 332 – Ü bergang von Schadenersatzansprüchen auf die Versicherungsträger. Rechtsinformationssystem des Bundes. https://www.ris.bka.gv.at/eli/bgbl/1955/189/P332/NOR40167636 (last visited 22 Feb. 2023)
[3] Ä rztegesetz 1998 – Ä rzteG 1998. (2022). § 96 – Sondervermögen für Versorgungsund Unterstützungszwecke. Rechtsinformationssystem des Bundes. https://www.ris.bka.gv.at/eli/bgbl/i/1998/169/P96/NOR40072003 (last visited 23 Feb. 2023)
[4] Bauern-Sozialversicherungsgesetz – BSVG. (2015). § 178 – Ü bergang von Schadenersatzansprüchen auf den Versicherungsträger. Rechtsinformationssystem des Bundes. https://www.ris.bka.gv.at/eli/bgbl/1978/559/P178/NOR40062088 (last visited 22 Feb. 2023)[5] Beamten-Kranken- und Unfallversicherungsgesetz – B-KUVG. (2015). § 125 – Ü bergang von Schadenersatzansprüchen auf die Versicherungsanstalt. Rechtsinformationssystem des Bundes. https://www.ris.bka.gv.at/eli/bgbl/1967/200/P125/NOR40062266 (last visited 23 Feb. 2023)
[6] Bundespflegegeldgesetz – BPGG. (2018). § 16 – Ü bergang von Schadenersatzansprüchen. Rechtsinformationssystem des Bundes. https://www.ris.bka.gv.at/eli/bgbl/1993/110/P16/NOR40205188 (last visited 23 Feb. 2023)
[7] Bürgerliches Gesetzbuch – BGM. (2023). § 249 Art und Umfang des Schadensersatzes. Bundesministerium der Justiz.http://www.gesetze-im-internet.de/bgb/__249.html (last visited 2 Mar. 2023)
[8] Bürgerliches Gesetzbuch – BGM. (2023). § 253 Immaterieller Schaden. Bundesministerium der Justiz. http://www.gesetze-im-internet.de/bgb/__253.html (last visited 2 Mar. 2023)
[9] Eisenbahn- und Kraftfahrzeughaftpflichtgesetz – EKHG. (2017). § 12 – Gegenstand des Ersatzes. Rechtsinformationssystem des Bundes. https://www.ris.bka.gv.at/eli/bgbl/1959/48/P12/NOR12026263 (last visited 23 Feb. 2023)
[10] Gehaltsgesetz 1956 – GehG. (2021). § 23b – Vorschuss zur besonderen Hilfeleistung. Rechtsinformationssystem des Bundes. https://www.ris.bka.gv.at/eli/bgbl/1956/54/P23b/NOR40230215 (last visited 23 Feb. 2023)
[11] Gesetz über die Haftung für fehlerhafte Produkte – ProdHaftG. (2017). § 8 Umfang der Ersatzpflicht bei Körperverletzung. Bundesministerium der Justiz. http://www.gesetze-im-internet.de/prodhaftg/__8.html (last visited 4 Mar. 2023)
[12] Gesetz zur Regelung der Gentechnik – Gentechnikgesetz – GenTG. (2022). § 32 Haftung. Bundesministerium der Justiz. http://www.gesetze-im-internet.de/gentg/__32.html (last visited 4 Mar. 2023)
[13] Gewerbliches Sozialversicherungsgesetz – GSVG. (2015). § 190 – Ü bergang von Schadenersatzansprüchen auf den Versicherungsträger. Rechtsinformationssystem des Bundes. https://www.ris.bka.gv.at/eli/bgbl/1978/560/P190/NOR40062038 (last visited 22 Feb. 2023)
[14] Kriegsopferversorgungsgesetz 1957. (2015). § 55a – Ü bergang von Schadenersatzansprüchen auf den Bund. Rechtsinformationssystem des Bundes. https://www.ris.bka.gv.at/eli/bgbl/1957/152/P55a/NOR40019714 (last visited 22 Feb. 2023)
[15] Luftverkehrsgesetz – LuftVG. (2021). § 36. Bundesministerium der Justiz. http://www.gesetze-im-internet.de/luftvg/__36.html (last visited 4 Mar. 2023)
[16] Militärbefugnisgesetz – MBG. (2021). § 43 – Ersatz von Schäden durch Maßnahmen zur Befugnisausübung Anspruch und Höhe. Rechtsinformationssystem des Bundes. https://www.ris.bka.gv.at/eli/bgbl/i/2000/86/P43/NOR40218322 (last visited 23 Feb. 2023)
[17] Notarversorgungsgesetz – NVG 2020. (2020). § 2 – Begriffsbestimmungen. Rechtsinformationssystem des Bundes. https://www.ris.bka.gv.at/eli/bgbl/i/2018/100/P2/NOR40210728 (last visited 23 Feb. 2023)
[18] Notarversorgungsgesetz – NVG 2020. (2020). § 71 – Ü bergang von Schadenersatzansprüchen auf die Versorgungsanstalt. Rechtsinformationssystem des Bundes. https://www.ris.bka.gv.at/eli/bgbl/i/2018/100/P71/NOR40210797 (last visited 23 Feb. 2023)
[19] Polizeibefugnis-Entschädigungsgesetz. (2022). § 2. Rechtsinformationssystem des Bundes. https://ris.bka.gv.at/eli/bgbl/1988/735/P2/NOR12015837 (last visited 22 Feb. 2023)
[20] Strafvollzugsgesetz. (2015). § 83 – Ü bergang von Schadenersatzansprüchen auf den Bund. Rechtsinformationssystem des Bundes.https://www.ris.bka.gv.at/eli/bgbl/1969/144/P83/NOR12028244 (last visited 22 Feb. 2023)
[21] Straßenverkehrsgesetz – StVG. (2022). § 11 Umfang der Ersatzpflicht bei Körperverletzung. Bundesministerium der Justiz.http://www.gesetze-im-internet.de/stvg/__11.html (last visited 4 Mar. 2023)
四、網站
[1] Bundesministeriums der Justiz.https://www.bundesjustizamt.de/DE/Home/Home_node.html
[2] Rechtsinformationssystem des Bundes. https://www.ris.bka.gv.at
肆、法文文獻
一、期刊論文
[1] Palmer, V. V. (2015). Dommages Moraux: L’Éveil Français au 19eme Siècle (Moral Damages: The French Awakening in the 19th Century). Tulane Public Law Research Paper, No. 15-7, 1–22.
伍、日文文獻
一、日文法規
[1] 民法. (明治二十九年法律第八十九号公布, 令和四年法律第百二号改正, 16 Dec. 2022).
[2] 合軍隊等行為等被害者等対賠償金支給等省令. (昭和三十七年総理府令第四十二号公布, 令和元年防衛省令第二号改正, 22 May 2019).
[3] 自動車損害賠償保障法施行規則. (昭和三十年運輸省令第六十六号公布, 令和三年土交通省令第五十三号改正, 31 Aug. 2021).
[4] 自動車損害賠償責任保険保険金等及自動車損害賠償責任共済共済金等支払適正化措置命令. (平成十三年十二月二十一日公布, 令和四年内閣府・土交通省令第五号改正, 26 Aug. 2022).
[5] 所得税法施行令. (昭和四十年政令第九十六号公布, 令和四年政令第百三十六号改正, 31 Mar. 2022).
二、網頁資料
[1] 内閣. (2022). 所得税法施行令. e-Gov法令検索.https://elaws.e-gov.go.jp/document?lawid=340CO0000000096 (last visited 7 Mar.2023)
[2] 土交通省. (2021). 自動車損害賠償保障法施行規則. e-Gov法令検索.https://elaws.e-gov.go.jp/document?lawid=330M50000800066 (last visited 7 Mar.2023)
[3] 土交通省. (2022). 自動車損害賠償責任保険保険金等及自動車損害賠償責任共済共済金等支払適正化措置命令. e-Gov法令検索. https://elaws.e-gov.go.jp/document?lawid=413M60000802002 (last visited7 Mar. 2023)320
[4] . (2022). 民法. e-Gov法令検索.https://elaws.e-gov.go.jp/document?lawid=129AC0000000089 (last visited 7 Mar.2023)
[5] 法務省.(2023). 慰謝料. 日本法令外語訳.https://www.japaneselawtranslation.go.jp/ja/dicts (last visited 7 Mar. 2023)
[6] 総理府. (2019). 合軍隊等行為等被害者等対賠償金支給等省令. e-Gov法令検索.https://elaws.e-gov.go.jp/document?lawid=337M50000002042 (last visited 7 Mar.2023)
三、網站
[1] e-Gov法令検索. https://elaws.e-gov.go.jp
[2] 日本法令外語訳.https://www.japaneselawtranslation.go.jp
陸、韓文文獻
一、期刊論文
[1] 최지선. (2020). 인공지능의 생성물은 어떠한 요건하에서 저작권법의보호를 받을 수 있는가?-최근 중국 법원의 판결을 중심으로. KoreaInstitute of Science and Technology, 109(6), 33–34.
[2] 이재경. (2015). 개인정보 유출에 따른 정신적 손해와 위자료의인정가능성 - 대법원 2012.12.26. 선고 2011다59834 판결 -. 동북아법연구,8(3), 525–544.
[3] 원혜욱. & 김자영. (2016). 명예훼손죄의 비범죄화와 민사상 손해배상책임.비교형사법연구, 18(4), 1–28.
二、司法判決
[1] 대법원 2007. 6. 1. 선고 2005다5812,5829,5836 판결[손해배상(기)•소유권이전등기등] [공2007.7.1.(277),972]. available athttps://glaw.scourt.go.kr/wsjo/intesrch/sjo022.do
三、韓文法規
[1] 교통사고처리 특례법. (법률 제14277호, 시행 3 Dec. 2017).
[2] 도로교통법. (법률 제18522호, 시행 1 Dec. 2022).
[3] 민법. (법률 제 17503 호, 시행 20 Oct. 2020).
[4] 민법. (법률 제19069호, 시행 13 Dec. 2022).
[5] 불법행위 유형별 적정한 위자료 산정방안 (Jan. 2017).
四、網頁資料
[1] 대한민국 법원. (2007). 아파트 분양광고시 바닥재, 테마공원,콘도회원권광고 등은 분양계약의 내용에 해당.https://www.scourt.go.kr/portal/news/NewsViewAction.work?currentPage=&searchWord=&searchOption=&gubun=2&seqnum=110 (last visited 21 Feb. 2023)
[2] 대한민국 법원. (2016). 2016년 「사법발전을 위한 법관세미나」개최.https://www.scourt.go.kr/portal/news/NewsViewAction.work?currentPage=&searchWord=&searchOption=&gubun=6&seqnum=1184 (last visited 21 Feb. 2023)
[3] 대한민국 법원. (2016). 법정통역인편람 (중국어).https://lawclerk.scourt.go.kr/portal/news/NewsViewAction.work?pageIndex=3&searchWord=&searchOption=&seqnum=12&gubun=713 (last visited 21 Feb. 2023)
[4] 대한민국 법원. (2017). 전국 법원장 간담회 개최.https://www.scourt.go.kr/portal/news/NewsViewAction.work?currentPage=&searchWord=&searchOption=&gubun=6&seqnum=1264 (last visited 21 Feb. 2023)
[5] 법제처 국가법령정보센터. (2017). 교통사고처리 특례법.https://www.law.go.kr/법령/교통사고처리특례법 (last visited 21 Feb. 2023)
[6] 법제처 국가법령정보센터. (2022). 도로교통법.https://www.law.go.kr/법령/도로교통법 (last visited 21 Feb. 2023)
[7] 법제처 국가법령정보센터. (2022). 민법. https://www.law.go.kr/법령/민법 (lastvisited 21 Feb. 2023)
[8] 위자료 연구반. (2017).불법행위 유형별 적정한 위자료 산정방안.대한민국 법원.https://lawclerk.scourt.go.kr/portal/news/NewsViewAction.work?pageIndex=1&searchWord=&searchOption=&seqnum=25&gubun=713 (last visited 21 Feb. 2023)
[9] 윤장근 (1987). 명예훼손에도 50만원까지 지급. 법제처.https://www.moleg.go.kr/mpbleg/mpblegInfo.mo?mid=a10402020000&mpb_leg_pst_seq=127583 (last visited 21 Feb. 2023)
[10] 한국법제연구원. (2020). 민법.https://elaw.klri.re.kr/kor_service/lawView.do?hseq=55222&lang (last visited 21Feb. 2023)
[11] 황민규. (2020). AI가 만든 콘텐츠도 저작권 존재한다. 조선미디어.https://www.chosun.com/site/data/html_dir/2020/01/09/2020010902828.html (lastvisited 21 Feb. 2023)
五、網站
[1] 대한민국 법원 종합법률정보. https://glaw.scourt.go.kr/wsjo/intesrch/sjo022.do
[2] 대한민국 법원. https://www.scourt.go.kr/scourt/index.html
[3] 법제처 국가법령정보센터. https://www.law.go.kr/LSW//main.html
[4] 법제처. https://www.moleg.go.kr/index.es?sid=a1
[5] 조선미디어. https://about.chosun.com
[6] 한국법제연구원. https://elaw.klri.re.kr/kor_service/main.do

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郭穎珍,論侵害名譽權之非財產損害賠償-以請求權人與賠償金額為探討中心,國立高雄大學法律學系碩士,2023年03月。
返回功能列
1.第一章 導論(48 點)
2.第二章 名譽權涵義與保護範圍 第一節 名譽權概念(60 點)
3.第二章 名譽權涵義與保護範圍 第二節 私生活領域侵害名譽權(116 點)
4.第二章 名譽權涵義與保護範圍 第三節 社會汙名化標籤侵害名譽權(144 點)
5.第三章 非財產損害賠償之特徵功能與意涵 第一節 損害概念(36 點)
6.第三章 非財產損害賠償之特徵功能與意涵 第二節 損害分類(28 點)
7.第三章 非財產損害賠償之特徵功能與意涵 第三節 非財產損害賠償功能(40 點)
8.第三章 非財產損害賠償之特徵功能與意涵 第四節 各國名稱及意涵(100 點)
9.第四章 侵害名譽權非財產損害賠償之請求權人 第一節 一般自然人(12 點)
10.第四章 侵害名譽權非財產損害賠償之請求權人 第二節 服公職自然人(36 點)
11.第四章 侵害名譽權非財產損害賠償之請求權人 第三節 無意識自然人(12 點)
12.第四章 侵害名譽權非財產損害賠償之請求權人 第四節 法人、合夥、獨資商號(28 點)
13.第四章 侵害名譽權非財產損害賠償之請求權人 第五節 AI 機器人電子人格(128 點)
14.第五章 侵害名譽權非財產損害賠償制定金額上限或基準金額可能性 第一節 加拿大(12 點)
15.第五章 侵害名譽權非財產損害賠償制定金額上限或基準金額可能性 第二節 澳大利亞聯邦(68 點)
16.第五章 侵害名譽權非財產損害賠償制定金額上限或基準金額可能性 第三節 美國(56 點)
17.第五章 侵害名譽權非財產損害賠償制定金額上限或基準金額可能性 第四節 大韓民國(24 點)
18.第五章 侵害名譽權非財產損害賠償制定金額上限或基準金額可能性 第五節 我國侵害名譽權建立非財產損害賠償金額上限或基準金額可能性(64 點)
19.第六章 結論(44 點)